Diário Oficial da União - The State of the Union (News Bulletin)

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Diário Oficial da União - The State of the Union (News Bulletin)

Post by Luc » 22:59:14 Wednesday, 04 October, 2017

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DIÁRIO OFICIAL DA UNIÃO

Imprensa Nacional

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Game news & stat updates shall come here.
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Re: Diário Oficial da União - The State of the Union (News Bulletin)

Post by Luc » 23:26:13 Thursday, 05 October, 2017

Q2 1929
GAME STATSShow
"Brazil fears nothing in the Present, prides itself on the Past and relies, serenely, on the Future." - Getulio Vargas

Stats:

Republic of the United States of Brazil (Republica dos Estados Unidos do Brasil)
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Motto: Order and Progress (Ordem e Progresso)
Map: http://www.mapas-historicos.com/atlas-1 ... antigo.jpg
Date: Q2, 1929
Population: 35,405,925
Size: 8,515,767 sq km

Foreign Relations:

United States of America - Good relations (67/100). Old allies, frequent trade partners.
United Kingdom - Moderate Relations (52/100). Frequent trade partners, minor border disputes with Guyana.
French Republic - Very Good relations (77/100). Old friendship, frequent trade partners, constant military cooperation.
Argentina - Poor Relations (46/100). Old Arms Race, Border Disputes, Traditional Rivals, ABC Pact.
Chile - Good Relations (65/100). Frequent trade partners, shared rivalry with Argentina, ABC Pact.
Uruguay - Moderate Relations (54/100). Border Tensions, local trade Partners.

Government:

System: Presidential Republic (Officialy); Oligarch Republic (de facto)
Current Popularity: 41%

Constitution of 1891 - http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/Co ... icao91.htm

President: Washington Luís
Vice-President: Fernando de Melo Viana

Minister of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce: Geminiano Lira Castro
Minister of Finance: Francisco Chaves de Oliveira Botelho
Minister of War: Nestor Sezefredo dos Passos
Minister of Justice and Internal Affairs: Augusto Viana do Castelo
Minister of the Navy: Arnaldo de Siqueira Pinto da Luz
Minister of Foreign Affairs: Otávio Mangabeira
Minister of Transportation and Public Works: Vítor Konder

Political Parties:

Federal Union Party (Partido da União Federal) (PUF) (Flamelord)
Party Ideology: Agrarianism, Conservatism, Center-Right
Party Leader: Washington Luis
Brief Description: Made of the conservative elements of the old Republican Party of Brazil under the leadership of President Luis. Most traditionalist party, defending the rights and privileges of the landowners and the top 1% of Brazilian society. Opposed to liberal and left-wing reforms. The party of the status quo.

Liberal Democratic Party (Partido Liberal Democrata) (PLD) (RedJohn)
Party Ideology: Liberalism, Progressive Democratic, Center
Party Leader: Julio Prestes
Brief Description: Social and economic liberal progressives under the leadership of the Governor of São Paulo Julio Prestes. Formed after the failure of the Ouro Preto Conference. Greatly popular with the urban middle class and the business community of Brazil.

National Liberal Alliance (Aliança Nacional Liberal) (ANL) (Westar)
Party Ideology: Liberalism, Populism, Center
Party Leader: Getulio Vargas
Brief Description: Liberal Populists under the leadership of the Governor of Rio Grande do Sul Getulio Vargas. Extremely in favour of social reforms related to labour, pensions, welfare and female voting rights. Very popular with the lower class of Brazil, especially in the North-East regions.

Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democrata) (PSD) (Acecipher)
Party Ideology: Social-Democracy, Liberalism, Center
Party Leader: Fernando de Sousa Costa
Brief Description: Social Democratic Party recently formed in 1925. Heavily inspired by German/Weimar Social Democratic policies, especially in relation to welfare. Popular with the educated urban middle class.

Democratic Party (Partido Democrata) (PD)
Party Ideology: Liberalism, Center-Right
Party Leader: José Adriano Marrey Júnior
Brief Description: Founded in 1925 from Republican Party dissidents. Despite being liberals, they mostly defend the interests of traditional families related to the agricultural market in Brazil.

Liberator Party (Partido Libertador) (PL) (LordMoose)
Party Ideology: Conservatism, Parliamentarism, Center-Right
Party Leader: Joaquim Francisco de Assis Brasil
Brief Description: Traditionalist and Conservative party from the South of Brazil, strong defenders of state authority and parliamentarism.

Communist Party of Brazil (Partido Comunista do Brasil) (PCB) (Smyg)
Party Ideology: Communism, Marxism-Leninism, Far Left
Party Leader: Astrojildo Pereira
Brief Description: Formed in 1921 after the split with the anarcho-syndicalists. Developed strong ties to the Soviet Union and the Comintern. Took extensive part in the civil during the 1920's, coordinating much of the action against the Federal government. Recently legalized again after the truce with the government. Popular with the urban, lower class proletariat.

Socialist Revolutionary Party (Partido Socialista Revolucionario) (PSR)
Party Ideology: Socialism, Left
Party Leader: João Mangabeira
Brief Description: Formed after the 1921 split by the moderate Socialist faction of the party. Grew to become the favoured party of the left wing/socialist urban intelligentsia. Took part in the civil war against the federal government. Recently legalized after the truce with the government.

Brazilian Worker's Confederation (Confederação Brasileira dos Trabalhadores) (CBT) (Marankara)
Party Ideology: Anarcho-Communism, Syndicalism, Far Left
Party Leader: Edgard Leuenroth
Brief Description: The remains of the Libertarian Socialist Party. Hold great control over the industrial cooperatives and trade unions in the larger urban centers. Resumed normal activities following the truce with the Federal Governemnt.

Proletarian Unification Party (Partido da Unificação Proletaria) (PUP) (MarsterOfOblivion)
Party Ideology: Trotskyism, Far Left
Party Leader: Mário Pedrosa
Brief Description: Formed by Trotskyist members of the Communist Party after their expulsion in 1926. Had some participation in the civil war. Legalized following the truce with the government.

Workers and Peasants Block (Bloco Operário e Camponês) (BLOC) (Snacks)
Party Ideology: Anarcho-Communism, Far Left
Party Leader: João da Costa Pimenta
Brief Description: Anarcho-Communist group that focuses in the Brazilian peasantry, being one of the few left-wing parties in Brazil that was able to find some representation with the uneducated peasantry. Fought alongside the other left-wing group in the civil war. Recently legalized again by the truce.

Brazilian Integralist Action (Ação Integralista Brasileira) (AIB) (Flaming Bolshevik)
Party Ideology: Integralism, Fascism, Far Right
Party Leader: Plínio Salgado
Brief Description: Far right group inspired by Italian Fascism and German National Socialism. Rapidly growing in the anti-left communities of Brazil. Fought alongside Federal troops against the Lieutenants and the Leftists in the Civil War.

Movement for Popular Action (Movimento da Ação Popular) (MAP) (Serenissima)
Party Ideology: Reformism, Tenentism, Center
Party Leaders: Luis Carlos Prestes, Eduardo Gomes
Brief Description: Movement composed of the leadership of the Lieutenants formed following the end of the Civil War. Still hold a great amount of influence over the army regiemnts across Brazil. Speculation regarding if they will become a political party in the future is large.

Brazilian Patrianovist Imperial Action (Ação Imperial Patrianovista Brasileira) (AIPB) (DutchGuy)
Party Ideology: Monarchism, Conservatism, Right
Party Leaders: Pedro Henrique de Orléans e Bragança, Arlindo Veiga dos Santos
Brief Description: Recently formed pro-monarchist movement, wishing to restore the Brazilian Empire originally deposed in the 1889 coup. Still very small, but slowly growing.

States and Territories:

Federal Districts: 1
States: 20
Territories: 1
SpoilerShow
Federal District

Senators: 3
Deputies: 15

Overview: Also known as the 'Guanabara District', special administrative district managed by the National Congress. Location of Rio de Janeiro, one of the largest and wealthiest cities in Brazil, also the capital of the Republic and home of the government. Very industrialized.


Rio de Janeiro

Senators: 3
Deputies: 31

Overview: A developed and rich state, finds itself sourounding the capital. Large industrial centers and developed farmlands are found all over the state.


São Paulo

Senators: 3
Deputies: 55

Overview: The industrial and agricultural heartland of the Republic. Extremely rich and developed cities with large industrial districts. Extremely fertile countryside that produces all the sorts of agricultural products, most especially Brazil's biggest export: coffee. Large immigrant population, mostly Italians and Japanese.


Minas Gerais

Senators: 3
Deputies: 57

Overview: One of the richest and most agriculturally developed states in the Union. Produces immense amounts of iron, gold, coffee and milk. Rapidly developing its industry and expanding its urban centers.


Bahia

Senators: 3
Deputies: 34

Overview: The richest state in the North-Eastern region, most famous for it extensive agricultural output, mostly focused in the plenty of cotton, soy and sugar cane. Slowly developing industry in the larger urban areas. Interior areas remain impoverished, due to government neglect and constant droughts.


Rio Grande do Sul

Senators: 3
Deputies: 28

Overview: Extremely developed state, with a healthy mix of agriculture and industry. Highlight goes to cattle farming, which is by far the most prosperous economic activity in the region. Soy and rice also extensively produced. Large population of German immigrants.


Pernambuco

Senators: 3
Deputies: 28

Overview: Most industrialized state in the north east accompained by a developed agricultural sector. Has suffered economical backlash over the decline of the sugar cane market, but has maintained its economy. Interior is extremely impoverished and underdeveloped, constantly hit by droughts.


Ceará

Senators: 3
Deputies: 17

Overview: Once one of the most prosperous states, Ceará has been wrecked by several droughts that have damaged the agricultural system of the state. The countryside has fallen to bandits, while the landowners atttempt to keep control. The only somewhat prosperous area is the capital city of Fortaleza.


Paraiba

Senators: 3
Deputies: 11

Overview: A moderately wealthy state in the northeast, has lost a lot money with the decline of the sugar cane trade. State also exports a decent amount of minerals. Countryside is generally impoverished and filled with bandits.


Pará

Senators: 3
Deputies: 9

Overview: Mostly covered by the Amazon Rainforest, state mostly relies in the large-scale export of minerals such as copper, iron and aluminium. Most of the state is underdeveloped and unpopulated.


Alagoas

Senators: 3
Deputies: 9

Overview: One of the smallest states in the Union, also one of the poorest. Largely unindustrialized, mostly relies in the declining export of sugar cane and other smaller agricultural products for income.


Paraná

Senators: 3
Deputies: 9

Overview: A rapidly growing state, exporting large amounts of coffee, corn, soy and sugar cane. Population has been increasing steadily since the declaration of the Republic.


Mato Grosso

Senators: 3
Deputies: 8

Overview: A very sparsely populated state, with most of its territory being unocupied. Almost entirely agrarian. Mostly relies on its production of soy and corn.


Santa Catarina

Senators: 3
Deputies: 8

Overview: A small state with a rapidly developing economy. Most of the economy relies in the cattle, soy and tobacco business. Small amounts of industry, especially the textile industry, are found in the state's capital of Florianopolis.


Piaui

Senators: 3
Deputies: 7

Overview: One of the poorest states in the Union. Most towns are underdeveloped and impoverished, lacking industry. Mostly rellies in the production of soy and sugar cane for its income.


Rio Grande do Norte

Senators: 3
Deputies: 6

Overview: One of the poorer states of Brazil, mostly relies in the export of fruits, nuts and ocean-based products. Constantly harassed by droughts, which leaves most of the interior impoverished and underdeveloped.


Espirito Santo

Senators: 3
Deputies: 6

Overview: A small state made rich for its production of coffee and its extraction of iron. Despite having a small population, its economy has been steadily growing since the 1890's.


Goiás

Senators: 3
Deputies: 6

Overview: A largely underdeveloped state of the Union, mostly composed of large farmsteads and a few average-sized towns. Relies mostly in the export of meat and other alimentary items. Small amounts of copper also exported.


Maranhão

Senators: 3
Deputies: 6

Overview: A mildly developed state of the Union. Despite most of its population living in poverty, the state is rich in iron, aluminium and gold, as well as producing large amounts of soy and a decent amount of cotton.


Sergipe

Senators: 3
Deputies: 5

Overview: Besides being one of the smallest states for territory, it is a poor and relatively underdeveloped region of the Union. Mostly relies in the export of fruits and sugar cane.


Amazonas

Senators: 3
Deputies: 4

Overview: Covered by the Amazon Rainforest, the state remains a mildly prosperous one. Despite losing the revenues of the rubber trade, the state mostly prospers from exporting wood and minerals. Most of the state is underdeveloped however, being covered by rainforest.


Acre Territory

Senators: 0
Deputies: 0

Overview: A territory of the Union and one of the poorest places in Brazil. Wrestled away from Bolivia some 30 years ago following a local revolution. Since its a territory, it lacks any form of representation in the Legislature.

Legislature:

Federal Senate: 63 Seats

PUF: 21
PLD: 17
ANL: 16
PD: 4
PSD: 3
PL: 2

Chamber of Deputies: 350 Seats

PUF: 93
PLD: 91
ANL: 70
PD: 42
PSD: 27
PL: 15
PCB: 4
PSR: 3
AIB: 3
BLOC: 2

Next Election (Both Executive and Legislative): Q1, 1930

Economy:

Finance: The Bank of Brazil issues the Real, used in currency both as paper notes and in gold coins.
Agriculture: The biggest source of income and pride for Brazil. Most of the interior of the states are extensively developed for agricultural use. Largest agricultural products of Brazil are coffee, soy, cotton, sugar cane and meat. Most of the cultivated land is controlled by rich landowners. Small amount controlled by the government.
Industry: Found in concentrated areas around Brazil, but rapidly growing. Most of the industry is concentrated along and in the proximities of the Atlantic coastline in cities like Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Campinas, Santos, Florianopolis and Porto Alegre.
Services: Healthcare, education, mail services etc. are all provided by the government, even if not of the best quality and often concentrated in the large urban areas, neglecting the countryside.

Government Budget:

Treasury: 65
Surplus: +10

Revenue: +420


Federal Product Taxes: +60
Income Tax: +60
Corporation Tax: +40
Trade Tariffs: +70

Public Corporations:

National Radio System: +10
National Telegraphic/Telephonic Service: +30
Federal Railways: +30
Municipal Transportation: +20
Postal Service: +20
State Media: +10
National Bank Revenues: +20
State Industry: +20
State Agriculture: +30

Expenditure: -410

Army: -50
Navy: -30
Air Force: -10
Road/Railroad Maintenance: -40
Police Departments: -40
Courts and Law System: -10
Prisons: -10
Government Administration: -20
Pensions: -10
Public Education: -30
Public Health: -30
State Industry: -30
State Agriculture: -20
Energy: -40
Sewage and Water: -20
Corruption: -20

Debt: 80 credits (30 owed to USA, 20 owed to UK, 20 owed to France, 10 owed to Domestic sources)
Interest rate: 20% (Adds 2 credits of debt per annum)
Interest Payments: 0 credits per annum
Total change in debt: +2 credits per annum

Private Sector:

Agriculture: 18
Light Manufacturing: 12
Heavy Manufacturing: 7
Services: 3
Tourism: 1
Luxuries: 3

Life:

Media: Newspapers and pamphlets run across the larger urban centers. Freedom of the Press is enacted, Communist and Anarchist papers are starting to grow. Most political parties have their own newspaper.
Transportation: Railway lines, both private and public, run through most of the countryside. Country lacks major highways, with most interior roads being either small paved ones or dirt roads. Tram services in all major cities. Rivers used extensively for travel in small boats.
Electricity: Most power produced by either hydroelectric dams or imported coal. Larger cities, towns and even smaller villages are supplied with electricity. Countryside remains in the dark.
Education: Most of the population is illeterate. The majority of literates are found in the middle and high classes of larger towns and cities. Universities are found in the major urban centers. Outside of the major cities, public education is barely provided.
Labour: 5-day work week, right to organize, bargain collectively or strike, child labour prohibited, some social benefits.
Health: Large and modern hospitals found in the larger urban centers. Smaller cities are served by underfunded and antiquated clinics. Many small towns lack any form of public health center.
Water and Sewage: Cities are provided with clean water and efficient sewage systems. Smaller towns have some sort of water distribution, but usually lack sewage systems.
Food: Food and crops are plentiful in most of the country. Cities are supplied with food daily and most farmers are self sufficient. The northeast is occasionally hit by droughts, which cause large scale famines.
Housing: Cities are a mixture of Colonial, Imperial and new Art Deco architecture. More developed cities in the interior are usually built with colonial architecture. Farms are built in similar styles, but with large distinctions between wealthy and poor farmers.
Crime: Most crime is petty crimes in city centers, usually robberies and theft. Homicide rates are somewhat high, especially in the countryside. Government corruption is quite large and mostly unchecked.
Religion: Most of the population follow Roman Catholicism, with large pockets of Pretestantism and Presbyterianism in the Southern states. Small Jewish communities in the larger urban centers. African-based religions practiced extensively by the Afro-Brazilian population.
Ethnic: Most of the population is composed of 'Pardos', a mixture between Caucasians, Afro-Brazilians and Indigenous groups. Afro-Brazilians and Caucasians follow after. Large amount of German, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish communities. Growing communities of Japanese and Arab immigrants in the country.

Authority:

Department of Political and Social Order (lbj181)
Director: João Neves da Fontoura
Operatives: 1,500
Vehicles: 30 cars, 10 trucks
Description: Brazil's political police, responsible for carrying out the Government's dirty and secretive work. Often watch over political movements and trade unions.
Supplies: Ammunition is high, well armed with army-grade weapons and equipment. Heavily funded.

Federal Department of Public Security
Director: Francisco Campos
Police Officers: 1,000
Vehicles: 250 cars, 30 trucks
Description: Brazil's Federal Police force, directly under the control of the executive. Mostly focus in detective and bureaucratic work, though often get involved in normal police action. Also responsible for passport control.
Supplies: Ammunition is moderate, most officers armed only with revolvers and other small arms.

Military Police of Brazil
Head Inspector: Setembrino de Carvalho
Officers: 55,000
Vehicles: 400 cars, 100 trucks, 30 Armoured Vehicles
Description: Despite the 'Military' Tag, this force ends up acting as Brazil's main police force, doing the normal duties of patrolling and keeping the order. It holds both strong ties to the Army and to the Government.
Supplies: Ammunition is plentiful in the richer states, the poorer the states, the less ammunition and supplies. Armed mostly with pistols and army rifles such as Mausers and Lebels. Occasionally Maxim machine guns.

Armed Forces of Brazil

Army of Brazil
Commander-in-Chief: Eurico Gaspar Dutra
Soldiers: 120,000
Cavalry: 20,000
Artillery: 320 Guns, a mixture of Howitzers and French WW1-era artillery.
Description: A powerful institution in Brazil, the creators of the Republic. Despite being neglected for years, the attention towards te army re-appeared, when it was split apart by the Civil War. Despite officially loyal to the Government, the Lieutenants hold great influence over the army. Soldiers' councils have formed, most swearing fealty to the Lieutenants, but some to the Communists and Syndicalists.
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are in general low due to the extensive usage during the civil war. Army mostly equiped with French and German equipment, such as Lebels, Mausers, Lugers etc. Machine guns like Maxim guns also used.

Navy of Brazil
First Admiral: Isaías de Noronha
Armada: 2 Dreadnoughts, 2 Cruisers, 14 Destroyers, 8 Gunboats, 4 Submarines
Marines: 2000
Description: The original rebellious branch of the Armed Forces, having engaged in several rebellions and mutinies since the rise of the Republic. Despite its previous track record, the Navy remained mostly loyal to the Federal Government during the Civil War as the Lieutenants failed to gain influence over its officers. There is a growing influence of Communist and Socialist ideals within the Navy however, which are already starting to cause some trouble.
Supplies: Most of the fleet is old and obsolete, with many ships in dire need of repair and modernization of its assets. Many land constructions belonging to the navy, such as shipyards and bases, have fallen to disrepair and disuse. Despite the bad quality of equipment and ships, the supplies of ammunition and oil are found to be in decent amounts.

Air Force of Brazil
Air Marshal: Armando Figueira de Almeida
Planes: 50 Bi-Planes, 15 Bombers, 30 Reconaisance Bi-Planes
Description: The youngest branch of the Armed Forces, only being created in 1927, the aerial assets of Brazil were previously divided between the Army and the Navy, only now being turned into an official, separate branch. The newly created Air Force took extensive part in the Civil War, remaining the most loyal part of the Armed Forces. The Air Force is still in its infancy, and much must be done to modernize it.
Supplies: While the planes themselves are newly made, their models and types are old and very outdated. Supplies like ammunition and oil are found in good amounts.

Militias, Paramilitary Groups, Private Companies and Others

Public Force of Brazil (Westar)
Commander: Filinto Müller
Loyal to: Vargas and the ANL
Location: São Borga, Rio Grande do Sul
Troops: 2,000 soldiers
Vehicles: 30 cars, 20 trucks
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are high. Armed with army-grade weapons.

Palmarista Red Guard (Smyg)
Commander: Gregório Lourenço Bezerra
Loyal to: Communist Party of Brazil
Location: Spread across the states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
Troops: 3,500 soldiers
Vehicles: 10 cars, 25 trucks
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are low due to the recent civil war. Weapons vary, some are military grade, others are ordinary civilian weapons.

Integralist Force of Brazil (Flaming Bolshevik)
Commander: Miguel Reale
Loyal to: Integralist Movement
Location: Rio de Janeiro, Federal District
Troops: 400 soldiers
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are low. Armed with pistols and civilian weaponry.

National Brigade (Serenissima)
Commander: Juarez Tavora
Loyal to: The Lieutenants
Location: Spread across Brazil
Troops: 5,000 soldiers
Vehicles: 20 cars, 30 trucks, 5 armoured vehicles
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are high. Armed with military equipment.

Armed Workers Federation (Marankara)
Commander: None, controlled by a Committee of the CBT
Loyal to: The CBT
Location: Focused in the large industrial centers of the South-East
Troops: 2,400 soldiers
Vehicles: 10 cars, 30 trucks
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are moderate. Armed with ordinary civilian weaponry.

Lavras Diamantinas Patriotic Batallion
Commander: Horácio de Matos (Coin)
Location: Chapada Region, State of Bahia
Troops: 3,000 soldiers
Vehicles: 5 cars, 10 trucks
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are high. Armed with military grade equipment.

People's Freedom Army of Paraguay
Commander: Rafael Franco (Robert Schumann)
Location: Nioaque, State of Mato Grosso
Troops: 1,254 soldiers
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are very low. Armed with Paraguayan military equipment.

Lampião's Band
Leader: Virgulino Ferreira da Silva "Lampião" (Gesar)
Location: Unknown, last seen in the town of Carira in Sergipe
Troops: 50 soldiers
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are moderate. Armed with civilian weaponry and equipment stolen form dead soldiers/policemen.

Farquar Unlimited
CEO: Percival Farquhar (CarpeVerpa)
Possessions: Several railway lines, extensive logging operations and iron ore mining operations. Also owns several hotels in the major cities.
Guards: 4,500
Vehicles: 40 cars, 100 trucks
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are high. Guards armed and equiped with American military equipment
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Luc
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Re: Diário Oficial da União - The State of the Union (News Bulletin)

Post by Luc » 15:49:18 Sunday, 29 October, 2017

Q3 1929
DOMESTIC NEWSShow
DOMESTIC NEWS
The Brazilian Legislature survived the civil war, and had actively met during the internal strife that the country faced in order to attempt to guide the republic through its darkest hour. Yet, no elections had taken place, and many delegates (mostly the communists) had been barred from participating in the legislative process. However, for the first time since the assassination of President Bernardes in 1924, the Congress in its entirety meets once again to administer the nation. Yet, it is not the same congress that it was five years ago. With the split of the republican movement and the slight increase in the left’s power, the legislature has seen radical change in its body, with the rise of new political parties, and the downfall of many others.

The new congress saw a surge of new bills, addressing everything from Foreign affairs to taxation. Curiously, the Communist Party, despite being one of the smallest parties in Congress, led an enthusiastic legislative campaign, issuing a number of bills, many that passed. Among those, there was the capoeira bill, that legalised the traditional african martial art, the jaguar bill, that greatly restricted the right to hunt and sell jaguar pelts, especially for foreigners, and the Tiradentes bill, which made the day of the execution of the old Brazilian freedom fighter, Joaquim Jose da Silva Xavier (more commonly known by his nickname of ‘Tiradentes’), a national holiday. Despite the ideological difference, all the 3 bills enjoyed a large amount of support in both chambers, being passed with ease.

Curiously, the Communist party also took a keen interest in reforming Brazil’s foreign policy, more so than any party. The bills issued by the communist party dealt with a variety of topics, such as the implementation of the League of Nations Stateless persons passport, the ratification of the Spitsbergen treaty,the official diplomatic recognition of the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd and, most importantly, a Bill that reformed many aspects of brazil’s immigration process. Most of the other parties supported the Communist bills, and unilaterally supported the motions. The only party that took a dubious stance on the matter was the Liberator Party, that at first were against most matters of foreign policy citing lack of need or interest in the matter, only to later support the implementation of the Stateless persons passport but later abstaining on the other foreign policy bills. A curious action on behalf of that party indeed.

The session wasn't all suns and flowers for the Communists however, for the party suffered many defeats in both domestic and foreign bills.

The Bill that called for an investigation into the businesses owned by the american industrialist, Percival Farquhar, was killed while still in the chamber floor. The debate was heated between the parties, and even had some degree of participation from Mr Farquhar that issued an official communique to Congress, defending himself. Despite support from the other Socialist parties, the Liberator Party, the Social Democrats and the ANL, the bill was defeated by a joint PUF & PLD vote that, with the help of the Democratic Party, managed to outvote the votes in favour of such motion.

The bill that called for the recognition of the Soviet Union was also defeated in the congress floor, with only the left wing parties voting in favour. Curiously, the ANL abstained on this law project.

Another Communist bill that failed to reach the Federal Senate was the motion to ratify the Kellogg-Briand pact, which prohibited wars of aggression. Despite wide support along the left wing segments of the chamber, a joint vote of the PUF and the PLD, supported by the Liberators, defeated the bill.

Despite the ups and downs in the Communist Legislative campaign, the greatest victory was by far the bill to ratify the Hours of Work Convention of 1919, an effort of the League of Nations and the International Labour Organisation to establish an eight hour work day for many industries. The bill enjoyed a large degree of support from most parties, from the Socialist Revolutionaries to the PLD, yet the PUF, and curiously, the Integralist movement, remained staunchly opposed to the project, arguing that to enact such measure would bring more harm than good to the Brazilian economy. The bill was passed through both houses of Congress and was finally sent to the President for his approval, where it was promptly vetoed and archived. The Presidential veto sparked outrage, and the Communist delegates were quick to mobilise and make use of an old constitutional maneuver, that allowed a joint session of congress to override the executive veto by a simple majority. After many sessions of debating, an overwhelming amount of representatives voted in favour of the bill, and the veto was scrapped. Due to the President’s reluctance to accept such measure, the Vice President of the Republic had to sign the bill into law on his behalf.

In a similar way to their Communist colleagues, the Liberator Party also attempted to start a large scale legislative campaign in the National Congress, issuing a number of bills that dealt with a number of issues ranging from fighting hunger to addressing the lack of profit made by national-owned industry, yet all of the bills failed miserably, becoming confusing projects that showed themselves to be extremely flawed. In the end, even the Liberators themselves showed a reluctance to debate their own projects, thus, all the bills proposed by them were archived by the Congress Secretariat.

One bill that created large amounts of debate was the so called ‘Infrastructure Regeneration Bill’, a project issued by the members of the Liberal-Democratic Party that called for the establishment of an official budget to repair the damage caused during the civil war and for a separate budget to further improve national infrastructure as a whole. The bill saw large amounts of debate in the Chamber, and several amendments were made to the project in order to satisfy other parties. In the end, most parties, except, strangely, the Liberator Party, supported the Bill and evan began an official vote on the Project, yet the vote was put to a halt after the President of the Chamber received a request from Governor Vargas of Rio Grande do Sul to address the bill. After a long train trip from Porto Alegre, Governor Vargas arrived in the Federal capital and was quick to address the Deputies were he exposed many of the bill’s faults and made several suggestions of his own in how to improve the project. Following Vargas’ speech, the vote was cancelled in order to address the points and suggestions raised by the Governor.

Finally, there was the ‘National Debt Stabilization Act of 1929’, a bill proposed by the Social Democrats that seeked to address Brazil’s growing foreign debt by issuing a standard debt payment per year. While the matter was discussed somewhat, the PUF assured the members that the debt was nothing to worry about, and that it could be better addressed at some later point. Afterwards, the discussion died out on the project, and hasn't been discussed further.

While never being proposed in an official constitutional amendment, the will to enfranchise the women of Brazil with the right to vote has been very strong within Congress. After the Liberator Party (wrongfully) attempted to enfranchise women through a simple bil, Governor Vargas was quick to author a letter of his own writing and address it to the President (the only person who can officially start constitutional amendments), with the objective of convincing him to start such measures immediately. The letter was widely praised by most members of Congress, especially the Liberal-Democrats and the Communists, who patiently awaited an answer from President Luis. After some wait, the President answered the Governor’s letter, where he claimed his party had for long studied the possibility, and promised that soon the PUF would propose such a motion to the legislature. Let us see if the promises of the President will be kept…

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Even before the Presidential veto was retrieved and the 8 hour work day bill officially approved, the workers showed the strength of their will. As news spread that the matter was being discussed in the Legislature, Trade Unions in the big cities of Rio and São Paulo, acting under the guidance of the CBT, pressured local businesses to implement an eight hour work day before the bill was even passed, as a way to show support towards the project. The Syndicalists found some success in the smaller and more concentrated industries, but overall failed to make a big impact in the larger industries, that maintained their work schedules as normal throughout the whole of the process.

Due to that, or perhaps simply due to coincidence, the CBT staged massive demonstrations against the upper class of Brazil, denouncing their unjust ways and the treatment given by them towards the lower classes and the native population. While tame protests at first, the news of the Presidential Veto outraged and mobilised the working class, and soon, Syndicalists, Anarchists, Communists, Trade Unionists, Social Democrats and industrial workers unaffiliated with any political movement filled up the streets, as thousands in Rio, São Paulo, Salvador and other big cities marched for their rights. The situation calmed down after the announcement of the Communist Override, throwing the angered protesters into an ideological frenzy, as the Anarchists waved their Red and Black flags from the windows of their tenements and the communists marched down the avenues singing ‘Le Internationale’ and carrying large Photographs of Marx, Engels and Lenin. Not since the glorious days of the Civil War had the Brazilian left’s optimism been this high, with many thinking that the approval of the Eight Hour Work Day was the first step of a long march towards Proletarian Revolution in Brazil.

With the frenzy in the streets, the CBT also attempted to take a hit at Industries that had previously done business with Percival Farquhar by calling their workers to strike. While a certain range of businesses were affected, the ones that most suffered were the Steel-Making factories in São Paulo, that beforehand had provided Mr Farquhar with Steel and Iron to build his so esteemed Railways across the country. The strikers were successful at first, paralyzing large portions of the industry across the state, even influencing other Steel Mills to follow suit, but their period of glory came to a short end, as the strikes were violently put down, not by men under the command of the factory owners, but by members of the Integralist movement, that mercilessly and efficiently clamped down on the protesters and forced them to resume work.

The surge in activity also led to the CBT sponsoring the establishment of new unions across the country, this time mostly focused in cities lacking major union representation, such as Paraiba and Salvador, where Trade Unionism is still relatively small. The CBT representatives found success in a few areas, but found their largest amount of support along dock workers and teamsters.

During a meeting of Party members and associates, the National President of the Social Democratic Party, Mr Fernando Costa, announced the beginning of a new political campaign called ‘Social Democracia em Ação’, or Social Democracy in Action, that would aim for increasing the party’s political reach while assisting several areas of Brazilian society.

Mr Costa goes on to announce the establishment of a multitude of specialized agencies in the larger cities of Brazil, as official branches of their party offices in those same cities. The agencies would be primarily tasked with counseling the local residents on matters related to social services, such as how to apply and benefit from them, but would also grow to include employment offices and meeting rooms were seminars on worker’s rights were held daily.

He also details his plans for the creation of a new scholarship program to bring young and bright Brazilians from working class backgrounds into universities, with the final intent of bringing as many Brazilians from poverty into a more prosperous life. After several examinations, many applicants were accepted into the program, most of whom are expected to begin their selective university classes by the end of the year.

The Social Democrats also attempt to expand their political influence over the students already enrolled in universities by establishing and sponsoring student discussion groups in the biggest universities in Brazil. The groups would start after the classes and go on until late at night, where topics related to the Social Democratic Ideology, workers rights and the future of Brazil were constantly debated and argued over by its idealistic young members. Groups like these appeared in all the major universities across Brazil such as the Federal University of Rio, the Federal University of Manaus, the University of São Paulo, the University of Paraná and the Federal University of Minas Gerais, where a fiery speaker, a young medical school student called Juscelino Kubitschek, has dominated the discussions and made himself quite a well known figure among the political circles of the University.

This multitude of action bring a great deal of attention towards the Social Democrats, a small party until then, who now have the attention of university students and the loyalty of many urban workers, all who were adopted and assisted by the new Social Democratic policies.

Delegates of the Liberator Party leave the National Congress in RIo to undertake a tour of the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, the party’s biggest foothold. As they travel from across the countryside they ask a series of questions to the local residents, asking them what they think of the party and what changes they want to see be made. Results were… not that good. The news of the recent failures of the Liberator Party in Congress had reached their voters in the rural areas, and they were not satisfied at all with the party’s performance in the Legislature. The tour helped somewhat with the party’s image, but was not able to mend together their once large popularity.

Members of the Liberator Party were also seen across the cafe’s and restaurants of Rio, inquiring what they wanted from the party in the future. Since the party never ran any candidates from Rio, and had no form of political presence in that state, the people didn't really have much to say.

While great deals of change takes place across the country, a crime shocks the nation. In the early hours of the 5th of september, a body was found in an alley in central Rio, shot twice in the stomach. After the police took hold of the situation and officially started investigations, the identity of the body was rapidly discovered; a young Lieutenant in the army called Emílio Garrastazu Medici. Medici had studied military doctrine in the Military School of Realengo in the Federal Capital, being prepared to join the loyalist ranks of the army during the civil war, but at some point defecting and joining the rebelling lieutenants. Following the end of the war, he had been readmitted into the army, but continued his Pro-Lieutenant stance, being an official member of the Movement for Popular Action and leading many of their activities among the army ranks stationed in the capital. The police had also found evidence that Medici might have been able to shoot his assailant before dying, possibly even wounding him in the process. There were few eyewitnesses to the crime, and the few that are, a small group of homeless men, have been disregarded as untrustworthy witnesses. With few good leads to start an investigation from, the Police officially attributed the murder as a possible robbery attempt gone wrong.

The death of Medici outraged the members of the MAP, both those found within the army and outside of it. Many say that the killing of Medici could not have been a simple robbery gone wrong, given that Medici was a trained soldier with battle experience that walked with his pistol at all time, with most thinking that the murder was a politically charged one. Many regiments in the capital have already shown their dissatisfaction through petitions and public rallies, calling for the opening of an official investigation into the matter. The soldiers councils that hold loyalty to Prestes and the lieutenants seem as strong as ever.

In a similar way to their land colleagues, there is also growing unrest in the Navy. Over the course of the last months, there is an increase of Marxist activity among the lower ranks of the Navy, with the formation of small Sailor’s Councils aboard the ships and their respective naval bases. Many of these sailors call for an increase of investment into the navy, as well as an improvement to their pay and to their general quality of life aboard. Despite the protests, they remain on duty, keeping a respectful attitude towards their commanders.

With Governor Vargas away on official business in Rio, the Integralist cells in Porto Alegre use the opportunity to carry out large scale attacks on communist installations in the city. On the night of the 10th of September, the communist party headquarters in the city is attacked by Integralist militants, who threw bricks into their windows and went on to invade the building complex, causing great damage. Most importantly, all the printing presses inside the headquarters were completely destroyed by the invaders. While a few members tried to organise a resistance to the attack, most were beaten down by the invaders, with a few being seriously wounded. The attack lasted for about an hour, before the Police came and dispersed the militants.

Seeking to grow their influence in the northeastern states, the Integralist party goes on to establish several soup kitchens in places like Ceará, Sergipe and Piauí, with the primary intent of feeding the homeless and the poor. The kitchens were, however, always guarded by armed militants, and quickly developed more into a place for political rallies rather than for feeding and eating, as seminaries were held almost everyday on Integralist ideology, recruiting many of the poor of the cities into the cause.

Members of the integralist party also tour some of the northeastern states offering protection to several prominent landlords against the growing communist threat. Due to the landlord’s successful incursions against the communists during the civil war, and the high price charged by the Integralists, most of them refuse the prospect.

During a large gala dinner held in the company’s headquarters in São Paulo, Mr Percival Farquhar announces to his high-ranking employees and shareholders that, for the first time since the breakout of violence in 1924, Farquhar unlimited shall invest in the construction of new railway lines in Brazil, this time focusing in the midwestern states, a region with relatively few lines. Besides the construction of new lines, other lines in the Northeastern and Southeastern regions are to be expanded. Curiously, the Southern Region was not included in this expansion plan. The announcement was met with great joy by the company shareholders, and the groundwork for the first new railway lines are already being set up, with the constructions expected to pick up in pace in the coming months.

Mr Farquhar also announces that his company shall be investing significantly in the state of São Paulo. The first aim of such investments would be to generally improve the textile industry, already one of the state’s largest industrial sectors, and expand it as much as possible. With the investment, the Industrial sector of São Paulo, greatly affected by the years of civil war, sees a boost in production and an increase in the general prosperity of many of the city’s residents. Mr Farquhar's investments end up helping a larger number of industries than originally predicted, with other sectors also reaping the benefits. Many who saw their prosperity be wiped out by war and unrest finally start to see some sort of return to economic normalcy. This action of goodwill greatly increases the already high standing of Mr Farquhar with the political class of the State.

Despite spending most of his time attending official business in the capital, Governor Vargas did not fail at any time to attend to the needs of the residents of his state of Rio Grande do Sul.

After scrutinizing the infrastructure bill in the legislature, Vargas was to begin his own reconstruction campaign in Rio Grande do Sul. The southern states, especifically Rio Grande do Sul, had seen the least of the fighting during the civil war, yet, it was not left unhurt, as the state’s infrastructure still sustained a fair amount of damage during the years of violence that had previously engulfed the nation.

Vargas orders for the creation of a Forum that was to lead the reconstruction of the south using input from the state’s residents, who sent extensive amounts of requests detailing what they believed should be the State’s Government priority in regards to reconstruction. Using the people’s input, the state authorities get to work. Old roads are repaved, damaged bridges are rebuilt, burnt-down houses are repaired and abandoned hydroelectric dams are put back to work. This action boosts Vargas’ popularity evermore in Rio Grande do Sul, with the people seeing him as the only person who cares about their well being while Congress wastes time and money, whilst being unable to reach any conclusion.

Vargas also takes greater action as the leader of the ANL. Under his request, branches of the ANL found on all states of Brazil, from North to South, hold large rallies and parades, even rivalling in size the demonstrations carried out by the left wing movements following the Eight Hour Work week affair. The ANL use this as a way to rally the popular vote and show to the people what their party stands for, emphasizing Governor Vargas’ work in the southern states and his participation in Congress as great examples of his dedication towards the nation. One topic greatly addressed during the rallies was the ANL’s desire to extend voting to all Brazilian Women, which was soon to be transformed into one of the party’s flagship policies. The demonstrations even received extensive support from the Brazilian Federation for the Advancement of Women, their leader Bertha Lutz and several other, smaller Feminine suffrage movements, who openly supported Vargas and the ANL. Other important figures such as Osvaldo Aranha, a prominent Federal Deputy, and João Pessoa, Governor of the state of Paraíba, also joined in, giving great speeches and openly supporting Vargas and the ANL’s cause.

In the depths of the state of Mato Grosso, the army of Paraguayan exiles under Commander Franco begins to reorganize itself. Firstly, Franco orders for the construction of makeshift wooden walls around the encampment, and the establishment of fixed patrols around their camp area, in order to prevent possible intruders. Besides a few indians attempting to steal food from the exiles, no invasions of the territory were reported. Commander Franco also establishes a clear but strict code of conduct for his soldiers, prohibiting the consumption of alcohol within encampment grounds and the selling of camp provisions.

Franco also orders his men to not interfere in any way with the life’s of the local farmers and residents, as a way to establish a healthy relationship between them. The only interactions between them allowed by the commander would be those of mutual assistance, where the Paraguayan exiles would assist the local farmers in their daily chores. This creates a good bond between the Paraguayan exiles and the locals, who now see them with kinder eyes than they did before.

Following an year of inactivity, Luis Carlos Prestes issues new orders for his famous column of revolutionaries.

The National Brigade is separated into two new columns, respectively called the 1st and 2nd Popular Action Brigades. The 1st Popular Brigade was marched to the border of Bolivia, where they were to wait for the arrival of apparent supplies, while the 2nd Popular Brigade was to remain at their posts, focusing in training and recruiting more members into the cause.

Alongside the reorganization, Prestes and his most trusted officers, inspired by the works of the Chinese Revolutionary Mao Zedong, publish a new set of rules, to better the efficiency and conduct of the Brigade’s members (See IC thread). The implementation of this new code of rules is successfully able to better the conduct of the Division’s soldiers, with its members being more efficient in the end.

After dealing with the administrative affairs of the movement, Prestes puts his old uniform back on and once again sets for the countryside. Followed by a small group of trusted guards, many who had followed Prestes since the first demonstration back in 1922, the Knight of Hope sets out to once again tour the route of the epic march he and his men undertook a few years before. Along the way, whilst visiting villages and towns that he had seen during the march, Prestes attempted to drum up support for his cause, with the intent of recruiting new members into the cause. There were places that admittedly were not big fans of Prestes, such as towns were pillaging and killings perpetrated by members of the column had taken place, but other places saw them in a different light, seeing them as heroes, and true patriots. In those places, with the help of a paphlçet distribution campaign that followed his travels, Prestes was able to recruit a decent amount of new members, ready to fight for a better nation than the one they currently have.

It is rumoured that, while trekking through the northeastern path of his old travels, Prestes might have met by coincidence with the infamous bandit Lampião somewhere in the Caatinga. That is most likely just another sensationalist lie invented by the media, but no one can truly be sure.

The 1st Popular Brigade encamped themselves in the border town of Corumbá, close to the Bolivian border, and there they waited for many weeks. Many were suspicious as to why the lieutenants had marched all the way to the border of Bolivia, some even theorizing that they intended of launching a filibustering campaign against the Bolivian Government, but all their ideas were shattered when a train came from the capital, carrying several crates of arms, Czech arms. They had been ordered by Prestes, shipped across the atlantic, unloaded in Peruvian ports and railed to Brazil through Bolivia, crates and crates of Vz.24 rifles and Vz.26 light machine guns, totalling around 20,000 guns.

Several officials of the MAP were also spotted in towns found alongside the Argentine province of Misiones, where they were apparently buying large quantities of good-bred horses, as well as other animals such as mules and donkeys, to replace the old and the deceased army animals of the Tenente brigades.

Officials from the Tenentista Brigades have also been reported on ordering extremely large amounts of tinned foods and provisions from the larger general stores in cities such as Rio and São Paulo.

Several newspapers have spread alarming reports, claiming that Prestes is importing this large amount of equipment in order to depose the Government and establish a Tenentista Regime in Brazil. The real reason behind the importation of these weapons is still unknown.

Following their exchange of letters, and a promise to not interfere with the politics of Brazil, President Luis takes the controversial decision of allowing the exiled Soviet Leader, father of the Red Army, Leon Trotsky, official political exile in Brazil. After weeks of Travel from Istanbul, the old Revolutionary, followed by his wife Natalia and a few band of loyal followers, arrived in the port of Rio de Janeiro where they were greeted by an immense welcome party at the port organized by the PUP, were generous quantities of alcohol were served for the factory workers, stevedores and trade unionists from the proximities who were all invited to greet and welcome Trotsky as he arrived. The exile would then make a speech for all the hundreds who attended, thanking them for the hospitality (with special greetings dedicated to the President) but also taking the opportunity to once again denounce Joseph Stalin and his government, famously stating that “Stalin’s collectivized bureaucracy has set back the people's revolution by millennia, but it is never late enough to fight for the return of what was lost”. A few militants of the communist party carried out a small protest against the exile, but were unable to make too much of an impression.

Trotsky and his wife were then taken in a covered car to a large manor in Tijuca, that the couple was to call their home from now on. Trotsky immediately resumed to his writings while the house was guarded, at all times, by armed PUP militants. Several times Trotsky left his house to visit the city and its residents, constantly followed by a well armed escort of party members.

Trotsky’s arrival, alongside an increased propaganda campaign in the cities, have boosted the image of the PUP, whose party membership has seen its first moment of somewhat significant growth since the party’s establishment.

In direct contrast of Mr Farquhar's investment into the sector, we see the rapid unionisation of São Paulo’s textile industry. Following several meetings with the city’s PUP leadership, several high ranking union leaders of the Textile Industry announced the creation of the ‘Sindicato Estadual dos Operarios Textis’ (the State Union of Textile Workers), a powerful union under the influence of the PUP. There were widespread rumours that the union’s first action would have been a major strike, but nothing happened so far.

The PUP also attempted to increase their influence among the teamsters and stevedores in the larger cities of the south-east. Party members would hold rallies, where long speeches were given and marxist literature, both traditional works by Marx (and other theorists) and more modern essays and treatises written by Lenin and Trotsky, were handed out to the workers. While no larger union has yet been formed, several smaller cooperatives, all swearing fealty to the PUP, were established and are rapidly growing in the cities.

Following the Communist Immigration reform (and special presidential consent) the Government of the State of São Paulo starts a new immigration program in the state, subsidizing the travel and settling of educated, mostly european immigrants, wanting to use their help and their labour as a tool to assist in the rapid modernization of the state. Following the announcement, several immigrants, many who were already going to settle in Brazil but in different areas, change their course and travel to the state, where they are welcomed by good amounts of government support.

In order to accommodate the increase in immigration to the state, Governor Prestes authorizes for a massive expansion of the city’s residential areas, followed by a large construction operation, that paved roads, built new bridges, constructed new tram lines and put up new electricity cables, clearly showing to the rest of the country the efficiency of the nation’s richest and most industrialized state. Despite the good amount of immigrants that came in, the majority of the houses ended up being occupied by internal migrants coming from the north east, many who fled south to escape the harsh droughts and the violent rule of the coronels. The move was criticised by the opposition, especially the ANL and the Democratic Party, who claimed that Prestes was wasting public funds in building new houses while many parts of the countryside lied in ruin from the civil war.

The PLD begins a huge propaganda campaign, aiming as pitching Julio Prestes as the ideal candidate for the presidency in the upcoming elections of 1930. In the impressive campaign that quickly spread itself out of São Paulo and into the neighbouring states, the PLD attempted to present Prestes as the most skilled and progressive candidate to run the nation, with widespread promises of liberalization of the political system, most especially the granting of women the vote.

The PLD as a party itself also grew tremendously over the course of these months. Prestes saw the establishment of several new party headquarters in most of the larger cities across Brazil, from Curitiba in the south to Belem in the North, whose openings were followed by large rallies, with party members of the PLD giving speeches and pasionately defending the party’s agenda as well as heavily focusing in the figure of Prestes, which seems to be a growing trend among the PLD’s political campaigns across the country. The party’s reach grows, quite a lot, all across the nation.

Back in the capital, Prestes tries to win the heart and support of the groups of high ranking army officers stationed in São Paulo by inviting them to several gala diners in the Governmental Palace, claiming to be a loyal man who respects military tradition. The Generals seems mostly neutral about this, not really seeming to support Prestes more or less than before, but only time will tell who they really want to see as president.

In the lawless lands of the north-east, members of the BLOC are spotted crossing the caatinga. They attempt to infiltrate the large properties owned by the powerful coronels in order to continue their quest of spreading Marxism to the poor and miserable of the brazilian sertão. In secret meetings under the moonlight, they hold seminars and meetings, teaching the peasants (most of them illiterates) about Marx, Lenin and the Communist ideal, attempting to in any way or form give them some sort of hope for the bleak future that most of them are destined to have. While managing to stir some sort of peasants support, most are unable to stay long, for they are mercilessly persecuted by the Coronels and their Jagunços, who after getting their hands on them, torture them, beat them and in the end, kill them, in the most horrible ways imaginable. A large number of BLOC agents stop reporting back, yet a good amout of them remain undercover, preaching the revolutions for the masses.

Many BLOC militants are also dispatched to the large city of Recife, one of the richest and most important cities in the northeast, with the objective of strengthening the power of the unions in the city, something which they are able to do. Shortly after, the Recife unions, still mostly small and relatively powerless, start to grow in membership, as more men join their ranks.

Following the rocky and mixed results of the legislative season, the Federal Union Party begins a new and large-scale propaganda campaign, preparing the party for the upcoming elections. Several rallies were held across Brazil, with the participation of illustrious members of the PUF ranks, such as J.J Seabra, the old Governor of Bahia, Firmiano Pinto, the old mayor of São Paulo, Francisco Vianna, the Vice President of the Republic, and extensive participation by the President himself. In such rallies, highly attended by the rich and high society of the country (and foreign businessmen), the great deeds of President Luis were proclaimed in bombastic speeches, where he was lauded as the saviour who protected Brazil and guided it through the worst period of civil unrest in its history. In these rallies, the party members also credited the President and the Party with most of the bills passed in Congress. Such rallies lead to an increase in Party membership, mostly in the cities among the higher classes and in the rich landowning families in the countryside. There is also an increase in middle class members of the party, albeit not a significant one.

Using his constitutional powers as the main director of the nation’s foreign policy, President Luis directs the Ministry of Foreign affairs (also known informally as the Itamaraty) to contact the government of the French Republic in order to procure for the replenishment of the outdated and exhausted supplies of the Brazilian Army. Due to the long history of military cooperation between both countries, the new French Government under Prime Minister Briand was extremely willing to assist, and after a payment of 3 government credits, very large amounts of ammunition were shipped to Brazil alongside several crates filled up with brand new Berthier rifles. Upon arrival to Brazil, the supplies were distributed across the country for several army regiments, improving the supply condition of the army.

Following the lack of progress in the Infrastructure Bill debate in Congress, President Luis takes a daring executive action. He authorizes the start of an immense operation carried out by the Federal Agencies and Ministries in order to repair the civil war era damaged infrastructure of Brazil, using a total of 5 government credits. Mostly carried out by the Ministry of Public Works, with substantial assistance from the Police Force, the works rapidly spread itself across Brazil, patching roads, railroads, bridges and hydroelectric dams. Many areas of Brazil that had been cut short of electricity since the outbreak of violence had their very awaited energy returned to them. Many smaller villages that had been devastated by war finally saw some sort of rejuvenation after so many years of wait. The abrupt action by the President left Congress dumbfounded, yet it did manage to cause a very good impression on the people, somewhat covering for the Eight Hour Work Week veto blunder, though not completely.

In the city of Rio de Janeiro, the trade union branch of the Communist Party of Brazil (the General Labour Confederation of Brazil) announces the formation of the Brazilian Worker’s Bank, a cooperative run bank that is to serve both as a normal savings bank and as a distributor of agricultural development grants & mortgage lendings. The establishment proves to be a very popular action, with several grants being taken out in the first weeks, and many new branches of the Bank being opened in other towns across the country, all managed by members of the Communist Party.

The General Confederation of Labour also establishes a new cooperative in Manaus. This cooperative, called the Boto Boat League, was to focus in the local dockworkers and sailors that operate in the Amazon river.

Also in Manaus, the Communist Party and the GCL stage a large protest in the ‘Floating City’, the name given to the large slums built on top of the water by the unemployed migrants who came to the Amazon fleeing violence and poverty, mostly in the North-east. They protested the inhumane conditions in the floating city, and called for good quality, state financed housing to be built for the residents. In response, the Mayor of Manaus made a public announcement, promising to look into the matter alongside the Governor and the rest of the local government. So far, nothing has been done.

The Communist Party supporters and personally sponsors the creation of a Brazilian branch of the Organization for Jewish Colonization in Russia, an American communist group that seeks to incentivize Jewish immigration to the Birobidzhan Jewish National Raion, a Proto-Israelite Autonomous state found within the Soviet Union, where ancient jewish traditions are enacted alongside the Soviet Socialist ideals. Offices are set up in Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Porto Alegre, the cities with the largest Jewish populations in Brazil,in order to look for applicants. A small amount of Jews has applied, but a small one.

The Party also takes other actions regarding its international stance. With the Party officially joining the Philatelic International (an organisation of Stamp Collectors in the Soviet Union) and starting the preparations of a football team, composed of mainly working class youngsters, to compete in the football trials of the upcoming Berlin Spartakiad Games, set to be held in 1931.

After being invited by the Communists to come to Brazil, the famous Comintern trained, american black-rights activist Harry Haywood, arrives in Rio de Janeiro. He is then taken by a large escort of Communist Party members to the state of São Paulo, to undertake a large speaking tour of the towns of Americana and Santa Bárbara d’Oeste, two municipalities extensively settled by Americans who seeked to continue with their tradition of slavery following the end of the American Civil War in 1865. Despite the large amounts of tension between the residents and the communist convoy featuring Haywood, the interactions between both remain peaceful. Haywood makes several speeches, lecturing the locals behind the socio-political reasons and consequences behind the civil war, as well as calling them to discontinue their use of Confederate symbolism. He is unable to change the stance of most of the locals, who seem reluctant to budge on the matter. Comrade Haywood then travels to the Northern state of Pará, where the Communist militants were about to strike.

In the early hours of the morning of the 17th of september, militants of the Communist Party under the command of the famous militant Gregório Bezerra, who had for many weeks scouted and infiltrated the place, lead an occupation of the infamous ‘Fordlândia’, a town envisioned by the famed American industrialist, Mr Henry Ford, that had the objective of dedicating itself to the cultivation of rubber, that was to be strictly used by the Ford Motor Company for the construction of their automobiles back home in the United States. Afraid of the heavily armed communists, and the amount of support from the workers within the complex, most of the town’s administrators (most of them American) fled on first sight. There, the Communists establish a commune, called the ‘Quilombo dos Fordlandia’, that elects its own workers council to manage the town for the time being. They telegraph a list of demands to the Ford headquarters in Manaus and Belem, which are already surrounded and constantly harassed by protesting members of the Communist Party, demanding a series of changes to the living conditions of the workers. Following many tense days of standoff, the Company responds, saying that in order to avoid violence, they are willing to accept those concessions.

In the far away territory of Acre, a new League, the so called ‘Acre Suffrage League’, is formed in the territorial capital of Rio Branco. They call for the elevation of Acre from a territory to an official state, with its citizens being given all the rights that other Brazilian citizens have such as (and most importantly) the right to vote.

Members of the PCB also stage a peaceful rally at the newly founded Museum of the State of Pernambuco in Recife. In the rally, the members uphold some of the values brought forth by Recife’s well known revolutionary history (being the birthplace of many revolts such as Praieira Revolt, the Pernambucan revolt and the Equatorial Confederation) and call for a wider inclusion of the heroes of those movements into Brazilian historical heritage.

Beyond the borders of Brazil, a delegation of PCB members headed by the Party’s International Secretary Antônio Canellas leaves Rio de Janeiro and heads to Buenos Aires, the capital of the Argentine Republic, to meet with communist & socialist parties from across the Americas in the 1st Conference of Communist Parties of Latin America. Many topics are discussed, including the development of Socialism in Latin America as well as the rising tide of fascism in Europe and abroad. At the end of the Conference, it was announced by the Argentine Communist Party that the Communist Party of Brazil had been invited to host the next congress, scheduled to take place around the same time in the coming year. Canellas graciously accepted the honours and was quick to deliver the final remarks of the conference, where he thanked the Argentine Communist Party for their hospitality and pleaded all the other parties present to continue their fight for the rights of the proletariat in their respective countries. He was met by a standing ovation.

It is also said that during the conference, Canellas as well as other members of the Brazilian delegation had long discussions with most of the parties present and with COMINTERN observers sent by Moscow to attend the meeting. What exactly was discussed in these off meetings? No one but the Delegation members know for certain.

While the political machinations take over the nation, there is trouble in the Sertão.

About the interior towns, man riding gallant and well bred horses travel through the dry backcountry roads on a mission: Spreading the Law of the Cangaço. These man make large speeches to the locals, denouncing the rule of the coroneis and the actions of their soldiers (the so called Jagunços), labelling them as inhuman savages who do nothing but exploit the peasant and praising the actions of the famous Bandit Lampião, calling him and the other cangaçeiros as the true heroes of the land. The speeches do not please the local police, who attempt to catch these riders at all costs, but as fast as they come, they vanish into the wilds, leaving the macacos in the dust. The talks by these mysterious riders rallies the populations of many towns and villages, leading to several reports of violence against the police and the local jagunços. There were even reports that a Sugarcane plantation in Sergipe was set on fire by its disgruntled workers. Despite the resistance, any sign of local resistance was mercilessly put down by the Coronels, who used their might to crush any dissidents.

While the Police attempted to chase down the riders, news came of more activity of Lampião’s band. Apparently, at some point, the bandit group had split itself into two smaller groups, with one marching north and the other south, confusing the already inefficient police. There were also widespread rumours that the Cangaçeiros had somehow bribed many police departments in the surroundings in order to make such movements easier. Due to the nature of things in that region, this rumour is most likely true.

The band that marched north, said to be commanded by one of Lampião’s most trusted commander, Angelo Roque, found itself in the town of Petrolina, a small but growing city in the state of Pernambuco, close to the border with Bahia. Encamped outside the town, the Cangeçeiros infiltrated the settlement and came to contact with the local prostitutes, who became true and loyal informants to the bandits, helping them to pull off their long awaited scheme. The Prostitutes managed, with their charm and the help of the Madames, to lure the Mayor of Petrolina, the Honourable Honório Santana, to the brothel for some personal time. While he was in there, the Cangaçeiros laid a trap and captured the Mayor, tieing him up, throwing him over a horse and riding out of town. The police attempted to stop them, but the Cangaçeiros being on mount and armed with new Gewehr rifles managed to evade them and ride north, towards the border with Paraiba. Holded up in the hills, they no request a payment of ransom from the city government for the safe return of their mayor. No such payment has yet been paid.

The rest of the group, under the leadership of Lampião himself, is unleashed upon the sertão of Bahia, where several notable events take place. Firstly, the band comes to the area of Jeremoabo, where a new member is said to have joined the group, the first women to join the ranks of the Cangaçeiros. Word has it that the women, a certain Maria Déia, asked for Lampião to kill her husband, a local cobbler, and his permission to join her group. Lempião is said to have agreed, not only accepting her into the group, but shooting her husband in the middle of the street with his Luger pistol. Following that, the group marched southwards towards the town of Agua Fria, where they are said to have laid a successful ambush to the local police detachment, killing many of them, only to then rob the only bank found in the small town, disappearing into the night shortly thereafter. Before every attack, Lampião is said to live up to his namesake by lighting up a lamp as an ominous sign of his coming.

At some other point following the attack in Agua Fria, a third detachment of Cangaçeiros, led by the most violent member of the gang, a bandit by the name of Corisco, rode across the deep section of the Bahia Sertão, wreaking havoc among the local landlords. Many smaller landowners and locals known for their unjust acts against the peasantry are summarily executed by the Cangaçeiros, some even having their properties burnt down.

By the end of september, the Police, too confused (and probably bribed) with the situation, end up losing the track of the three groups, who can be anywhere in Bahia, or even beyond, at this moment.

In Lençois, the Coronel Horácio de Mattos orders a wide variety of brand news weapons from the warehouses in Salvador, outfitting both the members of the Patriotic Battalion and the local Police Department with a brand new batch of fresh supplies. Entire storehouses in and around the area are filled with ammunition and back-up weapons, constantly being guarded by Mattos’ men.

Mattos also orders for the establishment of Breeding ranch in the area that, with significant help of investment from outer sources, aims at assisting the local ranchers with raising stronger and larger cows. Significant investments were also made to the road systems around Lençois, and permanent patrols were set up to permanently oversee traffic in the São Francisco river area, which reduces bandit activity and improves the prosperity and trade of the town.

For last, Mattos holds an immense party in Lençois, inviting Police Officers, local Military Authorities, Politicians and of course neighbouring Coronels to come to drink to the prosperity of the region. During dinner, Mattos stands up and makes a passionate speech, thanking all the men present who fought and bleed for the Sertão’s protection during the years of Civil War, and expressing his urge to further improve the quality of life in the area. He then announces that he himself shall make a generous donation to the State of Bahia strictly in order to improve the quality of the railroad line that runs from the São Francisco river to the state capital of Salvador. He is widely applauded for the action, and soon starts a petition to ask the Government of Bahia for such an investment. A few days later, a telegram is received by the Lençois Telegraph station: The Government of Bahia had accepted the petition and the funds sent by Mattos, the effort to repair and improve the line would begin immediately.
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Luc
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Re: Diário Oficial da União - The State of the Union (News Bulletin)

Post by Luc » 15:52:29 Sunday, 29 October, 2017

Q3 1929 - Continuation
FOREIGN AFFAIRSShow
South AmericaShow
Extensive negotiations take place between Paraguay and Bolivia on the issue of the disputed Chaco region, leading to an agreement - under pressure from the Pan American League - to return to the status quo. Still, an arms race is ramping up, causing much concern. The heated negotiations follow two years of conflict, most recently in December 1928 when a Paraguayan cavalry unit overran a Bolivian advance outpost on the outskirts of Paraguayan-held territory, and the Bolivians retaliated by bombing Bahía Negra and seizing Fortin Boquerón, killing 15 Paraguayans.

The progressive Argentine President Hipólito Yrigoyen, known as the "Father of the Poor" and the man who introduced universal suffrage back in 1912, comes under increasing pressure from the right-wing for fuelling unrest by implementing a comprehensive program of reforms, including an eight-hour day and a forty-eight hour week. This despite that the number of strikes have gone down, and also the number of strikers per stoppage (having averaged about 200-250 in 1928 and 1929, compared to 659 in 1927)

After being signed in June, as a consequence of negotiations in Washington D. C. led by former Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg, the Treaty of Lime (also known as the Tacna–Arica Compromise) is finally ratified by both Peru and Chile. The treaty, which awards Tacna to Peru, with Chile retaining Arica and paying 6 million dollars in compensation to Peru, among other things, finally settles decades of conflict and diplomatic fights following the War of the Pacific (1879–1883).

Román Delgado Chalbaud, an exiled Venezuelan naval officer imprisoned for 14 years after a failed 1913 conspiracy against the long-time strongman Gómez, commences an invasion of Venezuela! He is joined by members of the Junta de Liberación Nacional government-in-exile and mercenaries, together a force of about 250-300 men. Aboard the steamboat Falke, the would-be patriotic liberators leave from Hamburg to the Free City of Dánzig, where they procure two thousand rifles, four machine guns, twenty-four carbines, twenty-four revolvers, and 1,286 boxes of ammunition.

On August 11th, they finally make their landing in Cumaná, beginning the battle with government troops at 6 AM. By 8 AM Roman Delgado Chalbaud has been shot and killed. After this first defeat, the revolutionaries are split. Some enter the city at 1 PM, after are soon surrounded, withdrawing the next day, and are finally defeated in a last stand at Cerro Santa Ana, where the leader Pedro Elías Aristeguieta is fatally wounded. As for the Falke, José Rafael Pocaterra takes the controversial decision of setting sail immediately, dumping all remaining weaponry into the sea, and being apprehended as pirates by British authorities the moment they arrive in Trinidad.

Another set of anti-Gómez revolutionares, led by Rómulo Betancourt, sets off from the Dominican Republic with some Dominican volunteers aboard La Gisela, which turns out to not be sea-worthy, having made plans to meet with the forces of General Delgado Chalbaud. After hearing of the Falke failure, they head to Costa Rica instead.

Ten indigenous Ecuadorian protestors, including a pregnant woman, are massacred by the forces of Governor Gustavo Iturralde while peacefully assembling together with 300 others for a strike at a hacienda. The indigenous activist Agustín Vega successfully escapes, and writes to the National Congress from exile, denouncing attempts to silence the workers.

After much discussion and some input from other members of the movement, the Mexican Communist Party accepts to fund the trip of Nicaraguan Revolutinary Leader, General Augusto Sandino, to safety in Europe.
North AmericaShow
At a speech in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Winston Churchill says that no worthwhile naval agreement can be reached between Britain and the United States until the Americans recognise certain fundamental differences in the circumstances of the two nations. "To apply a rigid plan of numerical equality to conditions that are markedly unequal will be extremely difficult in reaching the true goal that Britain and the United States shall be equal powers on the sea", Churchill states.

Recently elected US President Herbert Hoover makes a radio address from the White House on international peace and arms reduction. Hoover states that "preparedness must not exceed the barest necessity for defense or it becomes a threat of aggression against others and thus a cause of fear and animosity of the world." Hoover also says that proposals to limit naval armaments "would preserve our national defenses and yet would relieve the backs of those who toil from gigantic expenditures and the world from the hate and fear which flows from the rivalry in building warships."

The American engineer Robert H. Goddard, who three years ago became the first to develop and successfully fly a liquid-fuel rocket, catches the attention of some newspapers when he launches the world's first rocket carrying a scientific payload - a barometer, a thermometer, and a camera. Among those noticing him are the aviation pioneer Charles Lindbergh. The wonders of modern science!

In Charlotte, North Carolina, jury selection begins in the trial of 16 members of the National Textile Workers Union who were accused of murdering a police chief during June 7 rioting related to the Loray Mill Strike. Tragedy strikes not long after, when several Loray Mill unionists are caught in a roadside ambush by unknown gunmen. The pregnant Ella Mae Wiggins, a union organiser, balladeer and mother of five known for her belief in organising black workers side by side with white ones, is shot in the chest and killed. Her five children are sent to orphanages, and five Lora Mill employees are charged in her murder.

Opinions are divided in the United States of America about the country's economic future. On one hand, the business theorist Roger Babson gives a conference speech in Wellesley, Massachusetts, saying that "more people are borrowing and speculating today than ever in our history. Sooner of later, a crash is coming, and it may be terrific.". Others are more upbeat about things to come, and the Dow Jones Industrial Average peaks at 381.17, previously untold heights.
EuropeShow
Various hindrances to the long-debated "Young Plan" are resolved, when Belgium and Germany reach a settlement on the question of German money left in Belgium at the end of the Great War. At the Hague Conference, the Allies finally ends with an exchange of signed conventions agreeing to end the occupation of the Rhineland. In September, Belgian and British troops begin their withdrawal. Soon after, extensive protests occur in Germany by nationalist forces against the Young Plan of debt payment. National People's Party leader Alfred Hugenberg speaks in Berlin before 20,000 supporters, calling the Young Plan "a piece of flagrant dishonesty, unworthy of honourable people." Two sons of the former kaiser, August Wilhelm and Oskar, are present. A petition with 5,000 signatures is handed in to the government, calling for a referendum "against the enslavement of the German people".

The Geneva Convention of 1929, officially the Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, is signed on July 27th in, well, Geneva. It has yet to enter force.

With the resignation due to medical reasons of Raymond Poincaré, Aristide Briand resumes his old position as Prime Minister of France. Briand, who gained the Nobel Peace Prize together with Gustav Stresemann in 1926 for the Locarno Treaties, comes to power for a sixth time only days after the Kellogg-Briand Pact goes into effect.

A month later, in an address to the League of Nations in Geneva, Prime Minister Aristide Briand calls for a United States of Europe, telling the assembled diplomats that a "federal tie must exist between peoples grouped geographically like the peoples of Europe". His plan includes the formation of an international police force to uphold the Kellogg-Briand Pact, as well as loan guarantees to aid any nation forced into war or threatened by it. Days later, representatives of 28 nations attend a luncheon to hear the Prime Minister's proposal for an "USE". He is named to draft a memorandum on the scheme for further study. "We have laid the cornerstone of a European confederation", Briand told the media after the meeting. "It was a good cornerstone." Perhaps there will be peace in our time.

A day after Briand's speech in Geneva, the newly appointed Labour Foreign Affairs Secretary Arthur Henderson proposes before the League of Nations Assembly that the League Covenant be revised to bring it in line with the Kellogg-Briand Pact, pointing out that Article 12 maintained a nation's right to wage war.

British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald also gives a speech to the League of Nations Assembly in Geneva outlining his government's policies. MacDonald says that Britain would "do everything possible to hasten the preparations for a disarmament conference." Britain does however withdraw a controversial disarmament resolution from the League of Nations proposing limitations on trained army reserves. Not long afterwards, the United States and Britain formally invite Japan, France and Italy to a naval disarmament conference scheduled to start in January 1930.

The first ever King's Speech made under a Labour government (although not read by the ill King himself, but by Lord Sankey) opens a new session of Parliament. The new Ramsay MacDonald government follow up by announcing that it will cut imports and manufacture as much as possible domestically in order to fight unemployment. Days later, a special day of thanksgiving is observed in churches across the British Empire to express gratitude for the recovery of King George V from his lengthy illness.

Half a million cotton workers across Britain go on strike, in protest of their wages being cut by 12.5 percent.

The Pedestrians Association, advocating for road safety and the rights of pedestrians, is formed in London.

Great Britain invites the Soviet Union to discuss the full resumption of complete diplomatic relations.

Across Europe, thousands of troops are assembled by anxious governments, over fears that communists would stage general strikes and riotous demonstrations on August 1 to mark "International Red Day". The day however passes with only isolated reports of violence. Riots were limited to Chișinău, Romania and Helsinki, Finland. 300,000 participate in an anti-war demonstration in Berlin marking the fifteenth anniversary of the outbreak of the Great War. No disturbances are reported in Latin America in connection to this specific event.

Violence does continue soon after in Romania, with the two-day "Lupeni Strike" in Transylvania. Labour activists, influenced partially by communist agitators but mainly connected to the governing National Peasants' Party, bring the miners of the Jiu Valley on strike, after demands that the government and their employers comply with the League of Nations' legislation, such as in regards to an eight-hour workday, a 40% raise for those who worked at furnaces and in pits, the provision of food and boots, and an end to underground child labour. The army does not agree, and massacre the strikers. Although numbers vary, over twenty miners are killed in total, with dozens wounded.

More violence, if brief, also takes place in Berlin, with two killed by police brutality after more than 1,000 communists, waving red flags and singing the Internationale, refuse an order to disperse.

"Rocket Fritz", the rocketry pioneer Fritz von Opel, pilots the first rocket-powered aircraft, the Opel RAK.1, in front of a large crowd in Frankfurt am Main.

A bomb explodes at 4 AM at the Reichstag building in Berlin. Windows are shattered but there were no injuries.

The Graf Zeppelin airship successfully completes its third transatlantic voyage, passing from Friedrichshafen to Lakehurst, New Jersey. It returns soon after, before successfully flying around the world all the way to Tokyo, where it after repairs departs for Los Angeles, completing the first non-stop flight ever made across the Pacific Ocean. Soon, it returns to Lakehurst, completing a tour around the world with only 12 days of flight. What a time to be alive.

The National Socialist German Workers' Party opens its 4th Party Congress in Nuremberg. 60,000 paraded during the four-day event, which includes a celebrity appearance by the Bavarian far-right politician and recently elected Reichstag member Franz Ritter von Epp. Not long after, a Nazi by the name of Joseph Goebbels, reportedly a close associate of the NSDAP leader Adolf Hitler, is among those arrested by Berlin authorities after shots were fired from a car riding in a procession of Nazis when onlookers hissed and jeered the demonstration. Empty cartridges are found in the car Goebbels was riding in.

The Free State of Prussia concludes the "Prussian Concordat", normalising relations with the Roman Catholic Church after the 1918 fall of the monarchy.

Fighting takes place in the Austrian village of Sankt Lorenzen-Sankt Marein in Styria, with clashes between socialists and fascists killing 1 and injuring 65.

The Ernst Streeruwitz government in Austria resigns. Johann Schober became Chancellor of Austria for the third time. The very same day, the coalition government of Czecheslovakia resigns and new elections are called for October 27.

Three prominent Italian anti-fascist politican prisoners, Emilio Lussu, Francesco Fausto Nitti and Carlo Rosselli, make their escape from the prison island of Lipari, in a daring plane rescue from the island shore. They make their way to Paris, joining other exiled anti-fascists.

Limited land reform takes place in Italy, as the Fascist government begins to - via lottery, no less - redistribute 3,500 acres of unused land belonging to the Doria family, seized by the state.

A mass trial in Fascist Italy of 250 members of the Sicilian Mafia ends, with 43 given prison terms of up to 3 years, 168 aquittals and a new trial ordered for the remaining 39.

In Rome, Pope Pius XI emerges from the Apostolic Palace and enters St. Peter's Square in a huge procession witnessed by about 250,000 persons, thus ending nearly 60 years of self-imposed status by the papacy as Prisoner in the Vatican. This follows the Lateran Treaties with the Fascist government, which turns the Vatican City into an independent, sovereign city-state.

An Italian naval and air squadron pay a visit to Bulgaria, in the course of which General Italo Balbo - soon after appointed Minister of Aviation by Mussolini - makes a speech encouraging Bulgaria to press its claims on Yugoslav Macedonia. Italian-Bulgarian relations are high. Meanwhile, a trial "Balkaniad" is held with Greece, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Romania competing in Athens, attempting to improve trans-Balkan relations.

While attending a meeting of the League of Nations, Prime Minister Augustinas Voldemaras of Lithuania is ousted after the resignation of his cabinet by long-term rival President Antanas Smetona. Voldemaras, who ironically supported the 1926 military coup together with Smetona, is replaced by Smetona's brother-in-law.
AfricaShow
King Albert of Belgium decrees that Albert National Park in the Belgian Congo will be expanded and the land set aside for preservation and scientific study. Severe penalties are imposed on anyone harming or otherwise interfering with the flora or fauna of the region.

Northern Rhodesia holdsgeneral elections for seven seats on the Legislative Council. Voters essentially rejected a proposed amalgamation with Southern Rhodesia as pro-merger candidates only win a single seat while anti-merger candidates win three.

Tensions are brewing among the Igbo women of British Nigeria, after fears of increased taxation emerge.
Middle EastShow
Great Britain signs a treaty with the Kingdom of Egypt, designed to formally end the British occupation and replace it with a military alliance allowing the British to station troops along the Suez Canal. Lord Lloyd resigns as High Commissioner in Egypt at the request of the Labour government due to differences of opinion over Egyptian policy.

A declaration is made by the British Government to King Faisal of Iraq that they are prepared to support Iraq's candidature for admission to the League of Nations in 1932, and that Britain would inform the LoN that they have decided not to proceed with the Treaty of 1927, indicating a gradual move towards complete and full Iraqi independence. Soon after, the Persians decide to finally recognise the Iraqi government as legitimate after years of refusal, and sign a treaty of friendship. Both countries agree to take measures to contain the restive Kurds.

Extensive riots erupt in Mandatory Palestine, when a long-running dispute between Muslim and Jews over access to the Western Wall escalate into violence. Arabs begin attacking Jews and destroying Jewish-owned property. Over the course of roughly a week, 113 Jews are killed by the Arabs, and 110 Arabs are killed mainly by the British police trying to suppress the riots. The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Haj Amin al-Husseini warns that Palestine and Arabia could not regain peace unless Britain abandoned its policy of making Palestine a national home for the Jews. Rioting ends after martial law is declared, and Jews soon return to pray at the Wailing Wall, under guard from Arab Muslim police officers.

Ibn Saud continues his steady victories. Following the earlier Battle of Sabilla, where much of the Ikhwan tribal leadership was killed, the Battle of Jabal Shammar further compounds this, with 1,000 men killed in clashes between Ikhwan-connected tribesmen and Saudi troops. The Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd also sign a treaty of friendship with Turkey, and within short receive official recognition from the Republic of the United States of Brazil, two small but crucial diplomatic successes. Much like a previous 1926 invitation of among others the Soviet Central Spiritual Directorate of the Muslims on the issue of pilgrimages, the King soon opens up Mecca for hajj journeys by Brazilian Muslims.
AsiaShow
Conflict continues between the Republic of China and the Soviet Union, beginning with a Chinese takeover of the Chinese Eastern Railway and a deportation of Soviet diplomats. Battle ensues, after relations are broken off. A short and bloody fight, involving over 300,000 soldiers, sailors and aviators, it proves an early challenge for the reformed Red Army, which deploys one-in-five of all Soviet soldiers. around 2,000 Chinese soldiers are killed, 1,000 wounded and thousands taken prisoner, in addition to 7 ships sunk, while the "Special Red Banner Far Eastern Army" suffers only 187 killed and 665 injured. By the end of the quarter, finding has largely stopped, but no treaty is yet signed. Many Western governments, surprisingly, applaud Moscow for using a cunning combination of measured force and diplomacy.

The Red Spear Society, beginning as a rural self-defence movement by small-holders and tenant farmers against roaming bandits, warlords, tax collectors, later turned into a full-on peasant insurgency, sees successes. By August, they have full control of northern Shandong's hinterlands as well as Dengzhou. By September, their victories falter, as the Nationalist strongman Liu Zhennian finally makes time to pacify their revolt. Meanwhile, his former superior, General Chu Yupu, is executed by firing squad, having been captured by Liu during the northeastern Shangdong warlord rebellion under Zhang Zongchang earlier during the year.

Indochina is rife with radicalism. Many different communist cells surge across the country, mainly splinters off the larger movements, with the August formation of the Communist Party of Annam for example, and several other formations earlier during the year. The Red Workers' General Union is also established.

The Afghan Civil War is reaching its climax. Mohammed Nadir Shah and his brothers, having rallied an army, are at war with the forces of the pretender Habibullāh Kalakāni, and are likely to win. The rival armies battle in the Logar Valley for control of Kabul. Meanwhile, anti-Soviet Basmachi rebels use the instability to launch raids into the USSR.

Mahatma Gandhi is elected president of the Indian National Congress, but he refuses to accept the post.
GAME STATSShow
Stats:

Republic of the United States of Brazil (Republica dos Estados Unidos do Brasil)
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Motto: Order and Progress (Ordem e Progresso)
Map: http://www.mapas-historicos.com/atlas-1 ... antigo.jpg
Date: Q3, 1929
Size: 8,515,767 sq km

Foreign Relations:

United States of America - Good relations (67/100). Old allies, frequent trade partners.
United Kingdom - Moderate Relations (52/100). Frequent trade partners, minor border disputes with Guyana.
French Republic - Very Good relations (77/100). Old friendship, frequent trade partners, constant military cooperation.
Argentina - Poor Relations (46/100). Old Arms Race, Border Disputes, Traditional Rivals, ABC Pact.
Chile - Good Relations (65/100). Frequent trade partners, shared rivalry with Argentina, ABC Pact.
Uruguay - Moderate Relations (54/100). Border Tensions, local trade Partners.

Government:

System: Presidential Republic (Officialy); Oligarch Republic (de facto)
Current Popularity: 44%

Constitution of 1891 - http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/Co ... icao91.htm

President: Washington Luís
Vice-President: Fernando de Melo Viana

Minister of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce: Geminiano Lira Castro
Minister of Finance: Francisco Chaves de Oliveira Botelho
Minister of War: Nestor Sezefredo dos Passos
Minister of Justice and Internal Affairs: Augusto Viana do Castelo
Minister of the Navy: Arnaldo de Siqueira Pinto da Luz
Minister of Foreign Affairs: Otávio Mangabeira
Minister of Transportation and Public Works: Vítor Konder

Political Parties:

Federal Union Party (Partido da União Federal) (PUF) (Flamelord)
Party Ideology: Agrarianism, Conservatism, Center-Right
Party Leader: Washington Luis
Brief Description: Made of the conservative elements of the old Republican Party of Brazil under the leadership of President Luis. Most traditionalist party, defending the rights and privileges of the landowners and the top 1% of Brazilian society. Opposed to liberal and left-wing reforms. The party of the status quo.

Liberal Democratic Party (Partido Liberal Democrata) (PLD) (RedJohn)
Party Ideology: Liberalism, Progressive Democratic, Center
Party Leader: Julio Prestes
Brief Description: Social and economic liberal progressives under the leadership of the Governor of São Paulo Júlio Prestes. Formed after the failure of the Ouro Preto Conference. Greatly popular with the urban middle class and the business community of Brazil.

National Liberal Alliance (Aliança Nacional Liberal) (ANL) (Westar)
Party Ideology: Liberalism, Populism, Center
Party Leader: Getulio Vargas
Brief Description: Liberal Populists under the leadership of the Governor of Rio Grande do Sul Getúlio Vargas. Extremely in favour of social reforms related to labour, pensions, welfare and female voting rights. Very popular with the lower class of Brazil, especially in the North-East regions.

Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democrata) (PSD) (Acecipher)
Party Ideology: Social-Democracy, Liberalism, Center
Party Leader: Fernando de Sousa Costa
Brief Description: Social Democratic Party recently formed in 1925. Heavily inspired by German/Weimar Social Democratic policies, especially in relation to welfare. Popular with the educated urban middle class.

Democratic Party (Partido Democrata) (PD)
Party Ideology: Liberalism, Center-Right
Party Leader: José Adriano Marrey Júnior
Brief Description: Founded in 1925 from Republican Party dissidents. Despite being liberals, they mostly defend the interests of traditional families related to the agricultural market in Brazil.

Liberator Party (Partido Libertador) (PL) (LordMoose)
Party Ideology: Conservatism, Parliamentarism, Center-Right
Party Leader: Joaquim Francisco de Assis Brasil
Brief Description: Traditionalist and Conservative party from the South of Brazil, strong defenders of state authority and parliamentarism.

Communist Party of Brazil (Partido Comunista do Brasil) (PCB) (Smyg)
Party Ideology: Communism, Marxism-Leninism, Far Left
Party Leader: Astrojildo Pereira
Brief Description: Formed in 1921 after the split with the anarcho-syndicalists. Developed strong ties to the Soviet Union and the Comintern. Took extensive part in the civil during the 1920's, coordinating much of the action against the Federal government. Recently legalized again after the truce with the government. Popular with the urban, lower class proletariat.

Socialist Revolutionary Party (Partido Socialista Revolucionario) (PSR)
Party Ideology: Socialism, Left
Party Leader: João Mangabeira
Brief Description: Formed after the 1921 split by the moderate Socialist faction of the party. Grew to become the favoured party of the left wing/socialist urban intelligentsia. Took part in the civil war against the federal government. Recently legalized after the truce with the government.

Brazilian Workers Confederation (Confederação Brasileira dos Trabalhadores) (CBT) (Marankara)
Party Ideology: Anarcho-Communism, Syndicalism, Far Left
Party Leader: Edgard Leuenroth
Brief Description: The remains of the Libertarian Socialist Party. Hold great control over the industrial cooperatives and trade unions in the larger urban centers. Resumed normal activities following the truce with the Federal Government.

Proletarian Unification Party (Partido da Unificação Proletaria) (PUP) (MarsterOfOblivion)
Party Ideology: Trotskyism, Far Left
Party Leader: Mário Pedrosa
Brief Description: Formed by Trotskyist members of the Communist Party after their expulsion in 1926. Had some participation in the civil war. Legalized following the truce with the government.

Workers and Peasants Block (Bloco Operário e Camponês) (BLOC) (Snacks)
Party Ideology: Anarcho-Communism, Far Left
Party Leader: João da Costa Pimenta
Brief Description: Anarcho-Communist group that focuses in the Brazilian peasantry, being one of the few left-wing parties in Brazil that was able to find some representation with the uneducated peasantry. Fought alongside the other left-wing group in the civil war. Recently legalized again by the truce.

Brazilian Integralist Action (Ação Integralista Brasileira) (AIB) (Flaming Bolshevik)
Party Ideology: Integralism, Fascism, Far Right
Party Leader: Plínio Salgado
Brief Description: Far right group inspired by Italian Fascism and German National Socialism. Rapidly growing in the anti-left communities of Brazil. Fought alongside Federal troops against the Lieutenants and the Leftists in the Civil War.

Movement for Popular Action (Movimento da Ação Popular) (MAP) (Serenissima)
Party Ideology: Reformism, Tenentism, Center
Party Leaders: Luis Carlos Prestes, Eduardo Gomes
Brief Description: Movement composed of the leadership of the Lieutenants formed following the end of the Civil War. Still hold a great amount of influence over the army regiemnts across Brazil. Speculation regarding if they will become a political party in the future is large.

Brazilian Patrianovist Imperial Action (Ação Imperial Patrianovista Brasileira) (AIPB) (DutchGuy)
Party Ideology: Monarchism, Conservatism, Right
Party Leaders: Pedro Henrique de Orléans e Bragança, Arlindo Veiga dos Santos
Brief Description: Recently formed pro-monarchist movement, wishing to restore the Brazilian Empire originally deposed in the 1889 coup. Still very small, but slowly growing.

States and Territories:

Federal Districts: 1
States: 20
Territories: 1
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Federal District

Senators: 3
Deputies: 15

Overview: Also known as the 'Guanabara District', special administrative district managed by the National Congress. Location of Rio de Janeiro, one of the largest and wealthiest cities in Brazil, also the capital of the Republic and home of the government. Very industrialized.


Rio de Janeiro

Senators: 3
Deputies: 31

Overview: A developed and rich state, finds itself surrounding the capital. Large industrial centers and developed farmlands are found all over the state.


São Paulo

Senators: 3
Deputies: 55

Overview: The industrial and agricultural heartland of the Republic. Extremely rich and developed cities with large industrial districts. Extremely fertile countryside that produces all the sorts of agricultural products, most especially Brazil's biggest export: coffee. Large immigrant population, mostly Italians and Japanese.


Minas Gerais

Senators: 3
Deputies: 57

Overview: One of the richest and most agriculturally developed states in the Union. Produces immense amounts of iron, gold, coffee and milk. Rapidly developing its industry and expanding its urban centers.


Bahia

Senators: 3
Deputies: 34

Overview: The richest state in the North-Eastern region, most famous for it extensive agricultural output, mostly focused in the plenty of cotton, soy and sugar cane. Slowly developing industry in the larger urban areas. Interior areas remain impoverished, due to government neglect and constant droughts.


Rio Grande do Sul

Senators: 3
Deputies: 28

Overview: Extremely developed state, with a healthy mix of agriculture and industry. Highlight goes to cattle farming, which is by far the most prosperous economic activity in the region. Soy and rice also extensively produced. Large population of German immigrants.


Pernambuco

Senators: 3
Deputies: 28

Overview: Most industrialized state in the north east accompained by a developed agricultural sector. Has suffered economical backlash over the decline of the sugar cane market, but has maintained its economy. Interior is extremely impoverished and underdeveloped, constantly hit by droughts.


Ceará

Senators: 3
Deputies: 17

Overview: Once one of the most prosperous states, Ceará has been wrecked by several droughts that have damaged the agricultural system of the state. The countryside has fallen to bandits, while the landowners atttempt to keep control. The only somewhat prosperous area is the capital city of Fortaleza.


Paraiba

Senators: 3
Deputies: 11

Overview: A moderately wealthy state in the northeast, has lost a lot money with the decline of the sugar cane trade. State also exports a decent amount of minerals. Countryside is generally impoverished and filled with bandits.


Pará

Senators: 3
Deputies: 9

Overview: Mostly covered by the Amazon Rainforest, state mostly relies in the large-scale export of minerals such as copper, iron and aluminium. Most of the state is underdeveloped and unpopulated.


Alagoas

Senators: 3
Deputies: 9

Overview: One of the smallest states in the Union, also one of the poorest. Largely unindustrialized, mostly relies in the declining export of sugar cane and other smaller agricultural products for income.


Paraná

Senators: 3
Deputies: 9

Overview: A rapidly growing state, exporting large amounts of coffee, corn, soy and sugar cane. Population has been increasing steadily since the declaration of the Republic.


Mato Grosso

Senators: 3
Deputies: 8

Overview: A very sparsely populated state, with most of its territory being unocupied. Almost entirely agrarian. Mostly relies on its production of soy and corn.


Santa Catarina

Senators: 3
Deputies: 8

Overview: A small state with a rapidly developing economy. Most of the economy relies in the cattle, soy and tobacco business. Small amounts of industry, especially the textile industry, are found in the state's capital of Florianopolis.


Piaui

Senators: 3
Deputies: 7

Overview: One of the poorest states in the Union. Most towns are underdeveloped and impoverished, lacking industry. Mostly rellies in the production of soy and sugar cane for its income.


Rio Grande do Norte

Senators: 3
Deputies: 6

Overview: One of the poorer states of Brazil, mostly relies in the export of fruits, nuts and ocean-based products. Constantly harassed by droughts, which leaves most of the interior impoverished and underdeveloped.


Espirito Santo

Senators: 3
Deputies: 6

Overview: A small state made rich for its production of coffee and its extraction of iron. Despite having a small population, its economy has been steadily growing since the 1890's.


Goiás

Senators: 3
Deputies: 6

Overview: A largely underdeveloped state of the Union, mostly composed of large farmsteads and a few average-sized towns. Relies mostly in the export of meat and other alimentary items. Small amounts of copper also exported.


Maranhão

Senators: 3
Deputies: 6

Overview: A mildly developed state of the Union. Despite most of its population living in poverty, the state is rich in iron, aluminium and gold, as well as producing large amounts of soy and a decent amount of cotton.


Sergipe

Senators: 3
Deputies: 5

Overview: Besides being one of the smallest states for territory, it is a poor and relatively underdeveloped region of the Union. Mostly relies in the export of fruits and sugar cane.


Amazonas

Senators: 3
Deputies: 4

Overview: Covered by the Amazon Rainforest, the state remains a mildly prosperous one. Despite losing the revenues of the rubber trade, the state mostly prospers from exporting wood and minerals. Most of the state is underdeveloped however, being covered by rainforest.


Acre Territory

Senators: 0
Deputies: 0

Overview: A territory of the Union and one of the poorest places in Brazil. Wrestled away from Bolivia some 30 years ago following a local revolution. Since its a territory, it lacks any form of representation in the Legislature.

Legislature:

Federal Senate: 63 Seats

PUF: 21
PLD: 17
ANL: 16
PD: 4
PSD: 3
PL: 2

Chamber of Deputies: 350 Seats

PUF: 93
PLD: 91
ANL: 70
PD: 42
PSD: 27
PL: 15
PCB: 4
PSR: 3
AIB: 3
BLOC: 2

Next Election (Both Executive and Legislative): Q1, 1930

Economy:

Finance: The Bank of Brazil issues the Real, used in currency both as paper notes and in gold coins. Cooperative Workers Banks set up by the Communist Party.
Agriculture: The biggest source of income and pride for Brazil. Most of the interior of the states are extensively developed for agricultural use. Largest agricultural products of Brazil are coffee, soy, cotton, sugar cane and meat. Most of the cultivated land is controlled by rich landowners. Small amount controlled by the government.
Industry: Found in concentrated areas around Brazil, but rapidly growing. Most of the industry is concentrated along and in the proximities of the Atlantic coastline in cities like Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Campinas, Santos, Florianópolis and Porto Alegre. Growing presence of Unions on the larger industrial centers.
Services: Healthcare, education, mail services etc. are all provided by the government, even if not of the best quality and often concentrated in the large urban areas, neglecting the countryside.

Government Budget:

Treasury: 68
Surplus: +11

Revenue: +421


Federal Product Taxes: +60
Income Tax: +60
Corporation Tax: +40
Trade Tariffs: +71

Public Corporations:

National Radio System: +10
National Telegraphic/Telephonic Service: +30
Federal Railways: +30
Municipal Transportation: +20
Postal Service: +20
State Media: +10
National Bank Revenues: +20
State Industry: +20
State Agriculture: +30

Expenditure: -410

Army: -50
Navy: -30
Air Force: -10
Road/Railroad Maintenance: -40
Police Departments: -40
Courts and Law System: -10
Prisons: -10
Government Administration: -20
Pensions: -10
Public Education: -30
Public Health: -30
State Industry: -30
State Agriculture: -20
Energy: -40
Sewage and Water: -20
Corruption: -20

Debt: 80 credits (30 owed to USA, 20 owed to UK, 20 owed to France, 10 owed to Domestic sources)
Interest rate: 20% (Adds 2 credits of debt per annum)
Interest Payments: 0 credits per annum
Total change in debt: +2 credits per annum

Private Sector:

Agriculture: 18
Light Manufacturing: 12
Heavy Manufacturing: 7
Services: 3
Tourism: 1
Luxuries: 3

Life:

Media: Newspapers and pamphlets run across the larger urban centers. Freedom of the Press is enacted, Communist and Anarchist papers are starting to grow. Most political parties have their own newspaper.
Transportation: Railway lines, both private and public, run through most of the countryside. Country lacks major highways, with most interior roads being either small paved ones or dirt roads. Tram services in all major cities. Rivers used extensively for travel in small boats.
Electricity: Most power produced by either hydroelectric dams or imported coal. Larger cities, towns and even smaller villages are supplied with electricity. Countryside remains mostly in the dark.
Education: Most of the population is illiterate. The majority of literates are found in the middle and high classes of larger towns and cities. Universities are found in the major urban centers. Outside of the major cities, public education is barely provided.
Labour: 5-day work week, right to organize, bargain collectively or strike, child labour prohibited, some social benefits.
Health: Large and modern hospitals found in the larger urban centers. Smaller cities are served by underfunded and antiquated clinics. Many small towns lack any form of public health center.
Water and Sewage: Cities are provided with clean water and efficient sewage systems. Smaller towns have some sort of water distribution, but usually lack sewage systems.
Food: Food and crops are plentiful in most of the country. Cities are supplied with food daily and most farmers are self sufficient. The northeast is occasionally hit by droughts, which cause large scale famines.
Housing: Cities are a mixture of Colonial, Imperial and new Art Deco architecture. More developed cities in the interior are usually built with colonial architecture. Farms are built in similar styles, but with large distinctions between wealthy and poor farmers.
Crime: Most crime is petty crimes in city centers, usually robberies and theft. Homicide rates are somewhat high, especially in the countryside. Government corruption is quite large and mostly unchecked.
Religion: Most of the population follow Roman Catholicism, with large pockets of Protestantism and Presbyterianism in the Southern states. Small Jewish communities in the larger urban centers. African-based religions practiced extensively by the Afro-Brazilian population.
Ethnic: Most of the population is composed of 'Pardos', a mixture between Caucasians, Afro-Brazilians and Indigenous groups. Afro-Brazilians and Caucasians follow after. Large amount of German, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish communities. Growing communities of Japanese and Arab immigrants in the country.

Authority:

Department of Political and Social Order (lbj181)
Director: João Neves da Fontoura
Operatives: 1,500
Vehicles: 30 cars, 10 trucks
Description: Brazil's political police, responsible for carrying out the Government's dirty and secretive work. Often watch over political movements and trade unions.
Supplies: Ammunition is high, well armed with army-grade weapons and equipment. Heavily funded.

Federal Department of Public Security
Director: Francisco Campos
Police Officers: 1,000
Vehicles: 250 cars, 30 trucks
Description: Brazil's Federal Police force, directly under the control of the executive. Mostly focus in detective and bureaucratic work, though often get involved in normal police action. Also responsible for passport control.
Supplies: Ammunition is moderate, most officers armed only with revolvers and other small arms.

Military Police of Brazil
Head Inspector: Setembrino de Carvalho
Officers: 55,000
Vehicles: 400 cars, 100 trucks, 30 Armoured Vehicles
Description: Despite the 'Military' Tag, this force ends up acting as Brazil's main police force, doing the normal duties of patrolling and keeping the order. It holds both strong ties to the Army and to the Government.
Supplies: Ammunition is plentiful in the richer states, the poorer the states, the less ammunition and supplies. Armed mostly with pistols and army rifles such as Mausers and Lebels. Occasionally Maxim machine guns.

Armed Forces of Brazil

Army of Brazil
Commander-in-Chief: Eurico Gaspar Dutra
Soldiers: 120,000
Cavalry: 20,000
Artillery: 320 Guns, a mixture of Howitzers and French WW1-era artillery.
Description: A powerful institution in Brazil, the creators of the Republic. Despite being neglected for years, the attention towards te army re-appeared, when it was split apart by the Civil War. Despite officially loyal to the Government, the Lieutenants hold great influence over the army. Soldiers' councils have formed, most swearing fealty to the Lieutenants, but some to the Communists and Syndicalists.
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are moderately high, due to recent French assistance. Army mostly equiped with French and German equipment, such as Lebels, Mausers, Lugers etc. Machine guns like Maxim guns also used.

Navy of Brazil
First Admiral: Isaías de Noronha
Armada: 2 Dreadnoughts, 2 Cruisers, 14 Destroyers, 8 Gunboats, 4 Submarines
Marines: 2000
Description: The original rebellious branch of the Armed Forces, having engaged in several rebellions and mutinies since the rise of the Republic. Despite its previous track record, the Navy remained mostly loyal to the Federal Government during the Civil War as the Lieutenants failed to gain influence over its officers. There is a growing influence of Communist and Socialist ideals within the Navy however, which are already starting to cause some trouble.
Supplies: Most of the fleet is old and obsolete, with many ships in dire need of repair and modernization of its assets. Many land constructions belonging to the navy, such as shipyards and bases, have fallen to disrepair and disuse. Despite the bad quality of equipment and ships, the supplies of ammunition and oil are found to be in decent amounts.

Air Force of Brazil
Air Marshal: Armando Figueira de Almeida
Planes: 50 Bi-Planes, 15 Bombers, 30 Reconnaissance Bi-Planes
Description: The youngest branch of the Armed Forces, only being created in 1927, the aerial assets of Brazil were previously divided between the Army and the Navy, only now being turned into an official, separate branch. The newly created Air Force took extensive part in the Civil War, remaining the most loyal part of the Armed Forces. The Air Force is still in its infancy, and much must be done to modernize it.
Supplies: While the planes themselves are newly made, their models and types are old and very outdated. Supplies like ammunition and oil are found in good amounts.

Militias, Paramilitary Groups, Private Companies and Others

Public Force of Brazil (Westar)
Commander: Filinto Müller
Loyal to: Vargas and the ANL
Location: São Borja, Rio Grande do Sul
Troops: 2,000 soldiers
Vehicles: 30 cars, 20 trucks
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are high. Armed with army-grade weapons.

Palmarista Red Guard (Smyg)
Commander: Gregório Lourenço Bezerra
Loyal to: Communist Party of Brazil
Location: Spread across the states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
Troops: 3,500 soldiers
Vehicles: 10 cars, 25 trucks
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are low due to the recent civil war. Weapons vary, some are military grade, others are ordinary civilian weapons.

Integralist Force of Brazil (Flaming Bolshevik)
Commander: Miguel Reale
Loyal to: Integralist Movement
Location: Rio de Janeiro, Federal District
Troops: 400 soldiers
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are low. Armed with pistols and civilian weaponry.

National Brigade (Serenissima)
Commander: Juarez Tavora
Loyal to: The Lieutenants
Location: Spread across Brazil
Troops: 5,000 soldiers
Vehicles: 20 cars, 30 trucks, 5 armoured vehicles
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are high. Armed with military equipment. New stocks of Czech equipment, Argentine horses and canned food.

Armed Workers Federation (Marankara)
Commander: None, controlled by a Committee of the CBT
Loyal to: The CBT
Location: Focused in the large industrial centers of the South-East
Troops: 2,400 soldiers
Vehicles: 10 cars, 30 trucks
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are moderate. Armed with ordinary civilian weaponry.

Lavras Diamantinas Patriotic Battalion
Commander: Horácio de Matos (Coin)
Location: Chapada Region, State of Bahia
Troops: 3,000 soldiers
Vehicles: 5 cars, 10 trucks
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are high. Armed with military grade equipment.

People's Freedom Army of Paraguay
Commander: Rafael Franco (Robert Schumann)
Location: Nioaque, State of Mato Grosso
Troops: 1,254 soldiers
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are very low. Armed with Paraguayan military equipment.

Lampião's Band
Leader: Virgulino Ferreira da Silva "Lampião" (Gesar)
Location: Unknown, last seen across Bahia.
Troops: 51 soldiers
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are moderate. Armed with civilian weaponry and equipment stolen from dead soldiers/policemen.

Farquhar Unlimited
CEO: Percival Farquhar (CarpeVerpa)
Possessions: Several railway lines, extensive logging operations and iron ore mining operations. Also owns several hotels in the major cities.
Guards: 4,500
Vehicles: 40 cars, 100 trucks
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are high. Guards armed and equipped with American military equipment
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Re: Diário Oficial da União - The State of the Union (News Bulletin)

Post by Luc » 20:14:02 Wednesday, 01 November, 2017

MID-TURN CRISIS: BLACK TUESDAY

On October 29th, the New York Stock exchange stopped falling - it plunged.


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Since Thursday, the 24th of October, the Dow Jones Industrial Average began to fall, losing almost 11% of its value on that day. Wall Street bankers attempted to revert the situation by buying as many shares as possible, something that temporarily worked, even raising the average by 1% on Friday the 25th, yet the the fall resumed on the next day, and by Tuesday the next week it had falled over 25%.

Few people can truly explain what ensued in New York over the last weeks of October, some blaming the unregulated, unrestricted market for causing the Crash, others just attributing it to a series of badly timed unfortunate events. While most cant (understandingly) understand the causes of the Wall Street Collapse, all can very clearly see its effects. Years and years worth of investments were suddenly lost, as millions of shares were sold at ridiculously low prices and thousands of banks across the United States shut down, taking millions of dollars in savings with them. Many families would suddenly find all of their life finances wiped out. Alongside that, thousands of workers are laid off work across the country, most without proper finances to sustain themselves and almost all lacking any type of unemployment aid. There are still many hopefulls, both within Government and Business, that believe that as destructive as this Crisis has been, it will, sometime in the near future, return to somewhat normal conditions, yet the future is hard to predict.

While the crisis is yet to hit Brazilian shores, its effects are rapidly spreading across the world, causing immense economic havoc, with the whole of North America and most of Europe already engulfed in chaos. The Brazilian Government will now need to quickly react and prepare itself as most as possible for the incoming storm.
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Re: Diário Oficial da União - The State of the Union (News Bulletin)

Post by Luc » 13:17:49 Friday, 29 December, 2017

Q4 1929
DOMESTIC NEWSShow
DOMESTIC NEWS

Despite the trouble at home, the National Congress continued to hold discussions and approve a multitude of bills over the past few months:

The biggest one by far was the ILO Compliance Act, a bill authored by the Communist Party that weaved a multitude of conventions drafted by the International Labour Organisation since 1919. Despite facing great resistance from the Liberator Party and originally the Liberal Democrats, the great parties of Brazil convened and supported the Communist motion, with the PL being virtually the only opposition to the Act in Congress. Ultimately, the bill was passed and the regulations started to be slowly implemented across the nation, through its full implementation might take some time.

The Anti-Slavery act was also voted on and passed, after being introduced to the congress floor by the Communist party. It called for Brazil to sign more League of Nations legislation on the matter of Slavery and called for Brazil to apply for membership on the Advisory Committee on the Traffic of Women and Children. Following its application, Brazil was accepted as a member of the body.

· The Communist Party also sponsored the ‘Dano-Brazilian Friendship Bill’, which took a series of measures to further the relationship between Brazil and Denmark. The bill had little discussion to it and was easily passed.

· In a more important note, the Communists also sponsored the ‘Jewish Gangsterism Act’, a bill that called for greater governmental action against the Zwi Migdal, a Jewish criminal organisation that lured poor Jewish women from Eastern Europe to South America under the false promise of prosperity, but that in reality would be turned into sex workers in brothels across the continent. The bill received great support from all parties in Congress and was easily passed (More on it down the turn).

· The ‘Bill to Mend Brazilian-Paraguayan Ties’ (also authored by the Communists) was voted and passed by Congress. It called for the return of several war treasures and archives that were confiscated by the Brazilian Imperial Army after the defeat of Paraguay during the War of the Triple Alliance (1864-1870). While there was some disagreement originally, especially on behalf of the PUF, an agreement was reached and the bill was passed. The move, albeit small, helped to improve the relations between Brazil and Paraguay.

· The Communists also attempted to pass a bill that called for Brazil to Diplomatically recognise the Falklands (or Malvinas) islands as sovereign Argentinian territory, and not British. While the left supported the bill, the PLD and the PUF bent together to defeat the bill. The ANL did not even show up to vote.

· The Communists were able to pass the ‘Bill to improve Brazilian-Liberian relations’, which was able to foster better relations between the two countries. They would also pass the ‘Manaus Floating City Act’ and the ‘1910 Amnesty Bill’.

· The Social Democrats also issued and passed the ‘Federal Citizen Suffrage Act’, which “urged the president” to look into the issue regarding the political rights of the citizens of the Acre Territory but did not give them the vote, nor any other type of political right.

· Several other bills, many of which aimed at tackling the impending economic crisis, where extremely debated, yet the delegates were unable to reach some sort of consensus with most of them. Let us see what consequences will this have for Brazil.

As the impacts of the economic crash spread across the world, its effects are slowly brought upon the shores of Brazil. With the market of the United States thrown into complete disarray, the exporting of large amounts of Brazilian goods, especially coffee, come to a grinding halt, as sales drop dramatically. Entire warehouses in the ports of Rio de Janeiro and Santos are left practically derelict, filled to the brim with unsellable coffee. Thousands of dockworkers living in the cities found along the coastline suddenly find themselves without any type of work, as the traffic of merchant ships in Brazilian ports fall significantly.

In the countryside, farms that previously prospered on the production of goods (mostly destined to be exported overseas) start struggling to sell their plenty’s. Rich farmers are barely able to make the cut, either being able to just sell parts of their stocks or being forced to sell their harvests at extremely low prices. The real damage, however, came to the poor and independent farmers. Those who had always struggled to compete in a harsh market against the rich landowners now found it impossible to sell their harvests at any sort of just price, many times being forced to abandon their farming activities and resorting to working as labourers in bigger properties, more often than not in exchange for a meal or meagre quantities of money. Many families resort to abandon their lands and walk to the large cities, where they hope to find new jobs. Subsequently, the recorded number of vagrants walking the country's roads and the population of beggars in the main cities have been increasing since the crash and is only expected to grow in the coming months.

Needless to say, unemployment is on the rise in the larger cities as well. As companies and stores find themselves unable to properly sell their goods, most resort to laying off thousands of employees, who are now left almost completely destitute. Factories were also forced to fire hundreds of workers, much to the dismay of their local unions.

One of the several bills introduced to Congress that was aimed at tackling the economic crisis was the ‘Bank Support Act’, a bill proposed by the PUF which called for the Brazilian Finance Ministry to issue generous amounts of credits in bailouts to private banks in order to cover the damages caused by the Financial Crisis. The bill was quick to be locked in the brutal ways of legislative politics and was unable to be moved forward.

The President, recognizing the immense repercussions of this crisis, was quick to act. Despite the bill not being put to vote yet, the President issued an emergency executive order, which allowed the Finance Ministry to use 25 credits from the National Treasury to financially support a multitude of private banks across the nation. The action was mostly a success, for while the effects of the crisis hit all, the large amounts of monetary support were able to help the banks make a “smoother” transition into the new state of the economy. While most of them were saved, for now, continued support from the federal government will be needed to maintain the well-functioning of the banks, and prevent them from complete economic disparity.

Naturally, the Executive Order was controversial. Right-wing members of Congress praised the President for his swift reaction to the crisis and defended the legality of the order itself by stating that given the emergency of the situation, such intervention by the Federal Government was entirely justified. The left, on the other hand, criticised the order for aiding banks and not the people, who suffered the most with the crisis. They also questioned how ethical was it for the President to move such large quantities of credits without direct congressional approval.

The President was quick to suspend many of the PUF’s activities, calling off large fundraising events in response to the financial crisis. Luis would then engage in a series of travels and meetings across the capitals of the Brazilian states, where he would meet politicians, economists, industrialists and other figures of the sort and ask for advice in dealing with the economic crisis. Opinions varied, but most agreed that the Federal Government should aid in the states’ recovery, but should ultimately respect and uphold the principle of Federalism and Brazil’s commitment to a mostly Free market above all else.

While fundraising events suspended, normal political activities were still kept running, giving off to the Brazilian people an image of a party that despite great hardships never abandons its work. In large events, the party shows itself to be active, both in the legislative and executive branches, and repeatedly shuns its two biggest competitors, the Liberals under Prestes and Vargas respectively, as inactive and inefficient members of the Brazilian political cycle. Large investments are made from party coffers towards the incoming elections, bettering the image of the party as a whole through effective political campaigns.

The PUF also makes generous donations to several charities in the bigger cities of Brazil, especially aimed at those who dedicate themselves to taking care of the homeless and the unemployed. The action is not very well publicised (perhaps intentionally) but is generally praised by the party members and by the Catholic church as a sign of humbleness and true concern for the poor of the nation. While the help is welcome, much larger donations or government support, would be needed to adequately tend to those affected by the economic crisis.

In between the campaigns and trips, the President signs another executive order, this time dedicated to the navy. In it, he assigns 2 credits from the government treasury to be used to repair and modernise the naval installations spread across the Brazilian Ports. Work begins immediately and helps to improve the long-damaged relations between the Government and the Navy.

The President also addresses the nation’s foreign debt. 2 Credits are designated to pay off the next year’s interest rate (though to which country is not specified), and 4 other credits are put on the ‘reserves’, so they can be used to pay up the nation’s foreign debt in the future.

Weary of the ‘Fordlandia’ strike, Governor Prestes of São Paulo uses his position’s power to legally establish a paramilitary force dedicated to protecting the state of São Paulo: The Public Force of São Paulo. Governors had always had the right to form their own Paramilitary forces, as long as they were strictly used for the maintaining of order in their respective state, and São Paulo’s had for long been in decline, suffering especially during the years of Civil War. With the approval of the State legislature, Prestes was able to summon an arm 3,000 volunteers, composed of Policemen, old military, reservists and veterans from the civil war, who would now defend and keep order within the state. Large amounts of American, army grade weaponry and ammunition are bought by the State government, not only to arm the new Public Force but also to prepare the state police force for any type of future conflict.

While the PLD bill to repair the damaged infrastructure caused by the war was quickly sunk in more legislative deadlock, Prestes would quickly enact the principles of his party’s bill within his state, where he held great authority. Coordinating by himself and his secretaries, a large public campaign to repair the infrastructure was carried out. Roads were re-paved, telegraph lines put up, railroads repaired and damaged houses reconstructed, all in an extremely quick and efficient manner. The campaign proved to greatly benefit Prestes’ image, for it illustrated to Brazil his commitment to the people and the efficiency of his government in São Paulo. Naturally, the move was extremely publicised by PLD officials all over the country. The PLD, acting directly under the instructions of Prestes, would also oversee a large increase of funding to the welfare programs of the state of São Paulo, somewhat making the transition to a post-crisis society easier for many of the poorer families of the area.

The multitude of state projects in São Paulo would be greatly used by the PLD campaign as a sign of the progressive, but moderate, stance of the party, while at the same time portraying its efficiency to the country. Intense campaigning would continue across the country, with Governor Prestes taking an active part in it, constantly travelling to give speeches and lectures across the country, as well as leading marches and party rallies. As a highlight, he would also hold a large dinner in São Paulo aimed at wooing the rich coffee farmers and industrialists. While no figure is exactly known, it can be assumed many wealthy donations were made to the PLD that night.

Following the end of his business in the capital, and the growing unrest in the capital of his state, Governor Vargas hastily returned to Porto Alegre to re-establish order. Upon his arrival, he is quick to order for a general roundup of all the members of the Integralist Movement in Rio Grande do Sul, arresting the leadership, closing down the presses and taking control of their properties. In a surprising turn of events, however, Vargas would also order for the arrests of several members of the Communist Party in Rio Grande do Sul, stating that the detainment of elements from both sides would be required in order to come up with a just resolution to the situation at hand. Despite the efficiency of the police and the public force at dealing with this, many members of the Communist Party and the Integralist movement respectively managed to evade arrest, either by escaping to the neighbouring state of Santa Catarina or by taking refuge in the farthest corners of the rural parts of the state.

The detainments were controversial. Across the country, cells of the Integralist movement condemned the attack, labelling Vargas as a traitor to the Brazilian nation. At the same time, members of the Communist Party protested the arrests of their own comrades, staging demonstrations and marches in Porto Alegre calling for the release of the arrested Communists. The protests were reprimanded by the Police Force, who ended up making even more arrests.

Despite the strong opposition and the days of chaos the protesting caused in the streets of the state capital, Mr Vargas was in no way dissuaded from pursuing his own executive agenda. Using his influence over the state assembly, the Governor was able to easily pass a bill which greatly increased state subsidies to agriculture (especially wheat and wine) and to the rising industrial sector of Rio Grande do Sul, helping to counter the effects of the economic crisis, albeit unable to reverse it obviously.

Besides the state policy, Vargas would dedicate many of his own personal resources to his more popular roots, by aiding the needy families of Rio Grande do Sul during Christmas time. By using ANL party funds, Vargas would start a campaign to distribute basic materials, such as foodstuffs, clothes and blankets, to the homeless and to working-class families. The campaign was wildly popular, and much hailed by the ANL and by the local branch of the Catholic church as a sign of humanity and solidarity during harsh times such as these. The Church would even hold a mass in the honour of Mr Vargas, a large public event in which he, his family and hundreds of his supporters would take part in. Similar campaigns, also organised by the ANL, would also be held across the country, bringing much attention to the party’s cause.

Fuelled by act such as those, the ANL campaign intensifies across the nation. In the Acre territory, emissaries campaign in favour of the “Acre Suffrage League”, whilst in the rest of the country, especially in the capitals, passionate rallies are held and long speeches are made, addressing the common man in the streets and in the factories. Taking part of many events himself, Mr Vargas makes an especial plea for all the groups that carry army-grade weapons (and are not authorised to do so) to disarm, in order to open the way for a more peaceful nation. He also makes a mockery of the Communist Party, messing with the occasion in which the party issued Senate votes, despite not having any delegates in that house of Congress.

Seeing the program's success, the Social Democratic Party invests more into its “Social Democracy in Action” campaign, this time focusing in smaller cities such as Manaus, Recife and Cuiaba. They also expand into Porto Alegre, the capital of Rio Grande do Sul, where the progressive reforms of the ANL lead to an increase in the interest of the local middle class into the Social Democratic ideals. The recent growth of the Labour movement in Recife, and the politicization of Manaus through the Floating City Act and the establishment of the ‘Fordlandia’ Quilombo, led to an increase of interest into the party.

The Party also uses its funds to further expand the previously established scholarship program and donates funds and resources to support the Communist-run Brazilian Worker’s Bank. With permission from the PCB, the PSD even builds up new centres for the bank, opening new branches close to Federal Universities to help the local students out when needed.

PSD officers also take up the torch of the new labour regulations passed by Congress and massively print many small pamphlets containing the information of what laws and regulations were changed. Said pamphlets were then distributed, free of charge, to workers and trade unions in the main cities, making them more conscious of all the changes made to the system.

In the corporate circle, Mr Farquhar uses a sizeable portion of his funds to begin buying smaller railways across Brazil, adding to his empire. Brazil’s Private railway's sector had always been running by small, localized companies, most of the times foreign owned, that would be dedicated to developing, building and maintaining the railway lines in a specific area of the country. Most of the companies had suffered greatly with the crash and feared that total bankruptcy would soon come. Thus, in order to liquidate these potential sources of monetary loss, many companies were glad to sell their assets to Mr Farquhar, who now boasts the largest amount of Privately owned rail tracks in the country.

Following the passing of the communist-issued bill that brought the issue of the Zwi Migdal to the eyes of Brazilian politics, action was for the first time taken by the state to deal with this organization. The Zwi Migdal had for years trafficked Jewish women from Eastern Europe to several South American countries to be used as sexual slaves and prostitutes in the brothels of Buenos Aires, Montevideo, Rio de Janeiro and other bigger cities of the continent. With its outlawing by the bill, large-scale action was taken to bring down the infamous crime syndicate. Spearheaded by members of the Federal Department of Public Security, many secret brothels were invaded, its “workers” freed and its pimps apprehended, as well as very large amounts of invaluable documentation into the status of the organization. The trafficked women were immediately given temporary housing and free medical treatment, while the members of the syndicate were promptly put under arrest, having their properties seized by the government and their bank accounts frozen. Soon enough, all of the branches of the Syndicate had been disabled, either by Police action or by the members of the organization, who in fear of arrest decided to voluntarily cease operations and disappear from the public eye.

The international repercussions for the action were large. The end of the Zwi Migdal was much praised by the Slavery Commission of the League of Nations, who denounced the international sex-workers syndicate and praised the actions taken by President Luis’ government. The attack on the Zwi Migdal also prompted other Latin American countries to do the same, with both the National Police of Uruguay and the Capital Police of Buenos Aires conducting similar operations, not completely destroying but severely hampering the operations of the syndicate. The Ministry of Justice would also begin to officially fund and protect the “Brazilian-Jewish Association for the Protection of Women and Girls”, a newly formed Organisation to protect Jewish girls and women in Brazil from barbarous acts such as these.

Following a very successful season in the National Congress, the Brazilian Communist Party emerges more successful and popular than it has ever been in its history. Large rallies and meetings are held across the country, with lengthy lectures being given to workers in the factories and to the poor in the slums, detailing the party’s agenda and its ideological standing. Comrade Astrojildo actively spearheads most of the electoral campaign, becoming its symbol. His figure turns into a symbol of hope for the working classes, with posters bearing his face (alongside those of Marx, Engels, Lenin etc.) being easily spotted across the walls of the larger urban centres.

Following the violent attacks to PCB offices in Rio Grande do Sul, the Party decides to react and adequately respond to the Integralist acts. However, they do so in a, quite unorthodox way. Instead of responding with violence, the PCB decided to support the formation of the “Brigada Brasileira dos Palhaços Antifascistas” (Brazilian Brigade of Anti-fascist Clowns - BBPA), a troop of clowns that would make heckling its main weapon, and use it to embarrass the movement. Its members would show up to Integralist party rallies, meetings and events completely dressed up in traditional clown outfits, and would go on to attack the party members using smoke bombs, stink bombs, water guns and other items of the sort. Their members would constantly prank call the Party offices, pieing their members in the streets and sending fake Cuban exploding cigars as “gifts” to high ranking members.

Naturally, there was backlash, and many members of the BBPA ended up wounded in confrontations with the Integralists. Yet when attacked they would most of the times be immediately defended by undercover Palmeirista Red Guards, who would come to their aid whenever possible. Still, the BBPA’s intense heckling did lead to events of violence on behalf of the Integralists, fortunately, no one was killed.

The last months of the year would see a rise of pro-Communist activity among the coffee workers of Brazil, most especially those in São Paulo and Paraná, curiously the surge would come especially from the sizeable community of Japanese coffee labourers working in the large coffee plantations. Under the organization of a new Japanese wing of the PCB, the workers would hold meetings and stage acts of disobedience, such as refusing to work and protesting for better living and working conditions. Despite being peaceful, the workers would be many times forcefully beaten back into work by the plantation workers, exposing the lack of rights of the Japanese population in Brazil. Even with the risk, many of them refused to concede, and still maintain their strikes up.

At the same time, another area in which Communist ideals blossom is the Navy. Always the most rebellious branch of the Armed forces, the sailors have now abandoned the old cause of Republicanism and racial equality, now openly protesting in favour of socialism. Meetings are constantly held in the ships, where avid debates are held over the future of the nation and what will the Navy's role in it. The growth of communist activity is bolstered by the announcement that João Cândido Felisberto, the ‘Black Admiral’ and leader of the 1910 Naval Mutiny, had officially joined the Communist Party following their work on the 1910 Amnesty Bill and an invitation from Comrade Astrogildo himself. His joining of the Party served to only strengthen communist activity within the Nation’s navy.

In the far North, the Quilombo continues to thrive as the PCB agents continue to enforce the demands previously made. Many Ford employees return to the Fordlandia grounds, but most refuse to resume their work, remaining afraid of the possible communist backlash to their local activities. The party militants continue to pressure the local administrators at all possible moments, effectively seizing control of the grounds and handing it to the workers.

Not long after, a telegram was received by the Fordlandia station. It was a joint declaration, made the Directors of the Ford Motor Company in Brazil and the state government of Mr Eurico Vale (PUF), that in resume, stated that whilst all concessions had been made to the local workers, Communist occupation still resumed over the town. The declaration called for the dissolution of the Quilombo and the withdrawal of all Communist Party militants, in return, the concessions given to the workers would remain. However, if the following demands were not met, the company and the state government would be forced to use more ‘extreme’ ways of regaining order over Fordlandia. The declaration also asked for support from the Executive Federal government in Rio to deal with this situation.

Back in the cities, the CBT starts a large campaign aimed at the workers. Seeing the imminent elections in the horizon, the CBT spearheads a large-scale effort to inform the individual worker and their respective unions of which local candidates will better represent them by handing out pamphlets detailing their policy agendas and views, further solidifying the left voting block in the larger, industrialized urban centres.

The CBT also makes a large donation of its public funds to many of the newly created Unions that were previously set up with direct CBT help. The funds not only help them to further expand but also help these young organizations to maintain themselves afloat and safe before the towering economic crisis.

Edgard Leuenroth, the leader of the CBT, also issues a joint declaration alongside other members of his movement, denouncing the growing trend of Integralist-fascist led violence in Brazil, emphasizing in the importance of the worker’s militias in defending the rights and well being of the Brazilian proletariat before such acts of aggression. The declaration eve leads to a small growth in the CBT’s militia force.

The military, an already highly politicized institution, infested by all the sorts of ideologies from all sides of the political spectrum, now begins to see the slow birth of new activity within its ranks: Trotskyist Activity. Over the course of the last months, in the Military districts and barracks, a newfound interest around the person and the ideas of Leon Trotsky starts to nurture among some of the Junior officers of the armed forces. Rallies are held, where soldiers (presumably undercover members of the PUP) hold discussions and speeches, where they claim that Prestes’ Tenentist ideals are not enough to bring upon the creation of a modern, industrialized and socially progressive Brazil. Books and essays written by Trotsky, both dealing with Ideological matters and MIlitary matters (relating to his leadership of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War) are now being smuggled among the low-ranking military circles, and have become quite widespread.

Naturally, such growth of Trotskyist activity has not at all pleased the other ideological circles of the army, with the lieutenants, the PCB, the Integralists and the Government loyalists seeing it as new ‘competition’ within the ranks of the armed forces.

In a similar way to the CBT, the PUP also continues their strong support of their backed unions, seeing the financial crisis as the prime time to further expand their influence and the power of their unions. Thus, the PUP supported Unions grow evermore, bringing more dock workers and teamsters towards the cause.

Curiously enough, a new area of interest is found by the Brazilian political media: The Prison System. In a surprising turn of events, many newspapers, the majority of them left-wing ones, begin a simultaneous campaign to expose the harsh realities of the Brazilian carceral system, talking about the conditions, the treatment of prisoners, the attitude of the police etc. All actions which are able to bring sufficient attention towards the matter.

At the same time, there is a growth of left-wing activity within the prisons, especially those in the northeast. Prison guards now find smuggled books and essays (most on Marxism) more than they ever did knives or other types of contraband, and graffiti with phrases such as “Viva Lenin” (Long live Lenin) and “Todo o poder aos Sovietes” (All the power to the Soviets) is now commonplace in the walls of many cells. Some activists who purposefully jailed themselves in order to disseminate Marxist-Leninist ideology have already been caught (and kept in jail), but it is suspected that the ring of Leftwing activity in Brazil’s system is much larger, and growing every day.

Seeing a growing trend of violence against its members, the BLOC begins to, slowly, form a new militia. Trained by other socialists with military experience (most civil war veterans), the group, albeit small, begins to grow into a highly organized and highly professional group of Militants, swearing to uphold the party’s values and to defend the people, especially the impoverished peasants, at all costs. While further details into their organization are unknown, rumours have it that contrary to the other left-wing militias, this one is being trained with guerrilla tactics in mind.

In the field of politics, the BLOC continues its successful political campaign, constantly outlining its victories in the legislative, and its staunch fight against bills such as the ‘Bank Act’. Its fight against the rural oligarchy of the Northeast also gained them much sympathy amongst the Brazilian proletariat and the left-wing intelligentsia, which boosted party activity and membership.

The BLOC would also in its campaign incentivize its members to join the ever-growing Worker’s Bank, an institution greatly supported by this party. They would also, alongside the PSR, found a cooperative leftist publishing house, successfully furthering the spread of Marxist and generally left-wing literature to the proletariat in the Urban centres. Finally, the BLOC would also apply for membership in the International Agrarian Bureau, an organization to which they would be shortly thereafter accepted into.

Following the construction of the Soup Kitchens, Salgado orders for a large-scale renovation of said centres, now being upgraded from simple communal kitchens into full-fledged community centres, featuring clinics, school’s, places for worship etc. Where Brazilians will be allowed to use its services and have access to food for no charge. It was much publicized by the party, and became a symbol of its dedication towards the people, rapidly increasing the party’s popularity among the working class.

At the same time, the party would hold a big rally in Rio de Janeiro, possibly its biggest yet, attended by a few thousand. Many topics are discussed and passionate speeches delivered by the members of the Integralist party, but most resort to the praising of Integralism, fascism and the denouncing of Marxism-Leninism and all forms of Liberalism. While there were concerns that the left-wing elements in the city would attempt to stop the rally, but with the exception of the infiltration of some anti-fascist clowns, the rally was not disrupted.

Fearing a Communist backlash from the attacks in the South, the AIB increases its efforts to better protect both the buildings owned by the AIB and associated businesses. The party also conducts some recruitment efforts and manages to somewhat increase the size of its militia force.

In between the rallies and the events, Plinio Salgado finds time to work on his personal writing project, a new book called “A Nova Ordem” (The New Order). In it, he outlined the following thoughts:

1. Human history at large as an opposition between "materialism"—understood by him as the normal operation of natural laws guided by blind necessity and spiritualism: the belief in God, in the immortality of the soul, and in the conditioning of individual existence to superior, eternal goals.


2. The moral decay in Western Civilization such as Drugs, Alcohol, Atheism, Marxism, Liberalism and overall degeneracy was a driving factor in the economic collapse that the world now faces.

3. The solution lies in the harnessing of individual interest to values such as pity, self-donation and concern to others and a heterogeneous and tolerant population with shared Christian Values which would be enforced by an Authoritarian State with an Acknowledged Leader.

4. Express support for the idea of "Revolution of the Self", in which a man is encouraged to stop thinking only for himself, and instead start to integrate into the idea of a giant integralist family—becoming one with the Homeland, while also leaving behind selfish and evil values.

Being written just in time for Christmas, the book became a great success, being distributed to workers and to the lower classes during rallies and events. It rapidly grew to become a vital piece to understand the Integralist ideology of Plinio Salgado.

Following the return from his trip across his old route, Prestes arranges for the formation of several scouting parties that, being led by officers with cartographical experience, are to travels across the interior of the country and map it thoroughly, taking into account the location of rivers, hills, forests and etc. Following the order, many groups set out and begin their operation across the nation.

Over the course of his new march across the territory, Prestes and his followers visited a multitude of villages and towns through which the famed column had passed many years ago only to find a divided population. Some had good memories of the movement and received them as heroes, praising their ideas and their work towards a more progressive Brazil. But others, however, saw them as criminals and rapists, that had stolen their property and burned down their farms many years before. Delegations from the higher ranks of the Lieutenants were sent to the families of people harmed by the Column and apologised, with officers involved in more violent occurrences being court-martialed and punished.

Not only were apologies carried out, but the Lieutenants personally travelled to several towns in the countryside in order to directly assist the poor, using their own funds to set up, under the locals consent, newly collectivized farms and smaller, locally based industries, ran directly by the locals. The assistance of the Lieutenants helped the locals greatly, especially given the hardships they faced with the financial crisis and the ones that already affected them for long.

Upon his return to Rio however, Prestes was quick to hear the news of the death of Lieutenant Medici and quickly got to work to uncover the perpetrator of such ghastly murder. The Lieutenants, in cooperation with sources within the ranks of the armed forces, launched an official investigation into the matter, swearing to solve this mystery.

The death of Medici, now considered a hero and a martyr to the cause, was extensively used by the leadership of the MAP to further the strength of the movement. Siqueira Campos, the famous leader of the 18 original mutineers of the Copacabana Fort, returned to Brazil after a long trip to Argentina and Uruguay and would give a rousing speech at Medici’s funeral, denouncing the murder and calling for more men to join the movement. The ranks of the Popular Brigades would then increase with new volunteers, coming from both the city and the countryside, men fuelled by a strong patriotic zeal and an almost blind sense of duty to the nation. These men would be quickly introduced to the ranks and put through a vigorous training routine, using the new weaponry and ammunition bought by the MAP leadership from abroad, turning said new recruits into lethal soldiers of the cause. What was to come next, however, was to be a shock to all…

In a stunning turn of events, João Neves da Fontoura, the director of the DOPS, would make a joint public announcement on the murder case alongside officers from the national police force that would shock the nation. In it, Fontoura would announce that the murder of Lieutenant Medici was actually carried out accidentally by a DOPS agent, who was forced to fire after an investigation into the man went wrong. Besides fully admitting guilt to the situation, Fontoura and the DOPS secretariat swore to the press to review their ways and their tactics in order to prevent something like this from happening again. The revelation naturally sparked outrage among the people, who demand not only a suitable punishment for the assailant (who currently resides in a prison in the capital, under the custody of the national police) but a total review of the Political Police system within the country.

Following the announcement of the State government of Bahia that a new railway would be constructed, de Mattos was quick to provide all the aid he could to the workers, making sure they received food, water and constantly pressuring the state government to keep the labourer’s pay on time, something that the state government has started finding harder and harder to do, not only due to its natural state of inefficiency and corruption, but also due to the financial crisis, that has caused a serious strain in the state’s finances.

The Financial crisis and the government's usual inefficiency did indeed slow down the work in the railway, but de Mattos’ presence and his large financial investments helped to keep the project going, despite the adversities. His men, aided by the Police force, would also keep a tight watch on the workers, kicking out suspected communists and labour agitators from the railway construction workforce.

De Mattos would also use many of his personal funds to improve the irrigation systems along the São Francisco river, building new canals and ditches. The action proved to greatly help the impoverished farmers of the region, possibly making the effects of any future drought in the area less severe than usual.

Alongside his personal development projects, Horacio keeps a tight watch within his territory. During the last months, many BLOC operatives and suspected Bolshevik sympathizers are arrested and thrown in jail, kept under vigilance of the Patriotic battalion members and the local Police force at all times.

Following the kidnapping of the mayor of Petrolina, the President himself took charge of the situation and was determined to not allow for such travesty to take place. A full battalion of the army was mobilized and put on the pursuit of the band under Roque. What ensued was a vicious cat and mouse chase across the Sertão, as the small band of cangaçeiros was relentlessly hunted by the army detachments sent under direct orders from the President, that curiously also made sure to bring in as many journalists and reporters from big newspapers (mostly Brazilian, but a few international ones too) to cover the story, leading to many memorable front pages in news outlets across the country.

In the end, the pursuit was fruitless. Upon the arrival of the Cangaçeiro bands in the famed Serra Talhada highlands, the army found it hard to keep up to pace with the much smaller band. The cangaçeiros also knew well the terrain and were able to hide and move without the soldiers knowing a thing. By the end of the chase, the troops sent by the government officially lost track of the band and were forced to call off the chase. Newspapers across the country reported on the event, but curiously did not blame the Federal Government or the Army’s inability to deal with these criminals, rather putting the blame on the more extreme sectors of Brazilian society (the Communists, Integralists, Anarchists and whatnot) for not helping the government enough.

A week later, a sack would be returned to Petrolina. In it, the shocked residents would find the body of the dead mayor, shot twice in the head with a rifle.

The band under Roque would then carry out several attacks against the landlords of the region, declaring solidarity with the dead militants of the BLOC, launching several attacks against the landlords. Several plantations were burnt to the ground, and few prominent landlords were violently killed, many times not even by the cangaçeiros directly, but by the poor and oppressed workers of the northeast, who would many times lynch their landlords themselves.

Simultaneously, another group of Lampião’s band, the regiment under the command of the infamous Corisco, led a series of daring raids to smaller countryside towns, not looking for money, but rather focusing in the prisons. Many policemen were killed in the action, and several criminals (many of them imprisoned for petty theft or acts against the local coroneis) were freed by the cangaçeiros. The deaths of a few cangaçeiros were recorded (though numbers are not accurate), but it is safe to assume that their ranks were increased with a new influx of liberated prisoners and new peasants seeking to join the struggle against the coroneis. The band would then travel west, in the direction of the São Francisco river, where several raids to the local shipping routes would be carried out, getting a lot of attention from the local authorities. They were, as in most times, unable to stop them.

The third band, under the leadership of Lmapião himself, would travel to the very west of the state of Bahia, dodging policemen and getting in occasional skirmishes with them here and there. Upon his arrival, Lampião would start to do what all feared he would one day attempt to: Gather forces. The ranks of the band would increase as the band under Lampião would carry out raids and recruitment drives, and even duel and kill other cangaçeiro leaders in order to incorporate their bands into his own. Despite several police raids to attempt to break them up, the weak and corrupt nature of the ‘monkey’ forces in that remote region would prove fatal in dealing with the bandits, resulting in the deaths of many officers. The popularity of Lampião would also be boosted by several acts of charity made towards orphaned, poor children and prostitutes across the northeast.

Amidst all the daring raids and duels and whatnot, it is rumoured that Lampião himself, followed always by his faithful partner Maria Bonita, took part (covertly as always) in Padre Cicero’s Christmas mass, bringing many gifts to the children there in attendance.

Among the many rallies held by the PCB, one of note was the one held in Recife. It was mainly held as a farewell homage to Comrade Harry Haywood, who would soon return to the Soviet Union after a long trip to Brazil. It was a big event, with many workers and party officials taking part. Due to its nature, and its location (being held in the centre of the city) it would also attract the attention of the city police force, who would dispatch many of its officers to keep watch over the Communists as they gave their Comrade a respectful farewell. Little did the ‘Monkeys’ know another event was to take place in Recife that night, that would shake the town down to its core…

Distracted by the Cangaceiro exploits in the countryside and the large communist rally taking place in the state capital, the Police Forces of Recife were stretched thin (more than usual), and it was there was the strike would happen. During the night, a group of Cangaceiros, that had previously sneaked into the city dressed as ordinary peasants and civilians (even using police uniforms in some cases), and aided by a legion of thieves, bandits and other criminals of Recife would lead a daring raid to the largest prison in the city. The gates were smashed with a large truck, and a large group of armed men would immediately enter. The already small garrison of guards would be quickly overwhelmed, as the combined strike from the outside invading forces and a communist/anarchist led riot that immediately erupted inside the prison would very rapidly destroy any of their defensive efforts. The insurgents would be soon in control of the prison.

The control of the Thieves and the Communists over the prison would not last long. The state government would be quick to answer, dispatching large swaths of the local Army garrison, the local police force and the State Public Force to retake control of the prison. The battle was fierce, bloody, and lasted all night. By the time the sun rose in the sea, the prison as back under state control, but at a huge cost. Many were killed, with high losses on both sides, leaving a scene of absurd brutality and sheer terror in the decrepit complex. Despite the losses, it is suspected that the Cangaceiros themselves (who are assumed to have planned and led the attack) suffered few casualties, and were able to swiftly escape the chaos and blend in with the poor masses of the city. On a more interesting note, a substantial group of important inmates, among them notorious thieves, union leaders, ‘Bolshevik’ agitators and Antonio Silvino, a notorious cangaceiro who ruled the Sertão before his arrest, are not accounted for, not being detained by the police or found among the dead.
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Luc
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Re: Diário Oficial da União - The State of the Union (News Bulletin)

Post by Luc » 23:28:10 Friday, 29 December, 2017

Q4 1929 - Continuation
FOREIGN NEWSShow
FOREIGN NEWS

AMERICAS

In Marion, North Carolina, 6 workers are killed and 25 wounded when drunk special deputies open fire on striking mill workers.

Massive prison riot at the Colorado State Penitentiary begins after a failed escape attempt by two inmates, who take hostages. The National Guard is called in and lays siege. A day later the siege ends with the mass suicide of the riot leadership. All in all, 8 guards and 5 inmates are killed.

By two votes, the U.S. Senate eased American censorship laws by passing an amendment to a tariff bill to exempt books and pamphlets from a ban on the importation of obscene content (restrictions against other media, such as paintings and photographs, remained in place). However, the amendment included a new prohibition against books or drawings urging forcible resistance to the laws of the United States or threats against any American's life. The amendment would be revoked in March 1930.

Connecticut Senator Hiram Bingham III was censured by his colleagues by a 54–22 vote for allowing a paid lobbyist to accompany him during closed-session meetings of the Smoot-Hawley tariff subcommittee.

The Edison Institute of Technology was dedicated in Dearborn, Michigan on the fiftieth anniversary of Thomas Edison's invention of the lightbulb. "Every American owes a debt to him", President Hoover said in a speech honouring the 82-year-old inventor. "It is not alone a debt for great benefactions he has brought to mankind, but also a debt for the honour he has brought to our country. Mr Edison, by his own genius and effort, rose from modest beginnings to membership among the leaders of men. His life gives renewed confidence that our institutions hold open the door of opportunity to all those who would enter."

Jimmy Walker was easily re-elected Mayor of New York City over Fiorello H. La Guardia by a record plurality of 497,165 votes.

Ramsay MacDonald becomes the first ever sitting British Prime Minister to visit the United States of America, arriving in New York City before proceeding to Washington D. C., where a joint meeting with President Herbert Hoover is held. After attending a disarmament conference with the President, MacDonald also addresses the US Senate with a speech on world peace and disarmament.

A while later the Prime Minister departs for Canada, where MacDonald meets in Ottowa with the Canadian Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King. In Canada, much goes on, although no one really notices. The Privy Council of England, most oddly, makes a landmark decision to recognise women as "persons" under the law in Canada, giving them the right to be appointed to the Senate. Also, Nova Scotia votes to repeal Prohibition in a referendum, leaving Prince Edward Island as the only "dry" region in all of Canada.

Pascual Ortiz Rubio is elected President of Mexico by an overwhelming majority in the general elections. 19 are killed in election day rioting.

Three shots were fired at Argentine President Hipólito Yrigoyen as he left his home on the way to his office, but only his bodyguard was wounded. The assailant, a native Italian thought to be possibly an anarchist, was wounded when police guards returned fire. Efforts were made to save the shooter so he could be brought to trial but he died of his wounds.

EUROPE

The 1929 Nobel Prizes were awarded. The recipients were Louis de Broglie of France for Physics, Arthur Harden of the United Kingdom and Hans von Euler-Chelpin of Sweden (Chemistry), Christiaan Eijkman and Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins of the United Kingdom (Physiology or Medicine), Thomas Mann of Germany (Literature) and Frank Billings Kellogg of the United States (Peace).

Much delayed, the United Kingdom restores diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, after the House of Commons votes 324-199 to do so.

London Town comes to a standstill, as thousands stop their daily routines on October 14th to witness the maiden voyage of the British airship R101.

Protests outside of the American embassy in London, held by 500 communists in solidarity with the textile workers of the Loray Mill Strike, sees 3 arrests happen.

The British government, in a brief moment of weakness, gives a concession to the country's coal miners, informing their unions that there would be a uniform reduction of work hours from 8 down to 7 and a half per day without reduction of wages. It's a half-measure, as the miners sought a repeal of the Stanley Baldwin government's Eight Hours Act and a return to the old 7 hour day. The next day, the stock market crashes.

David Lloyd George says in the House of Commons that war was inevitable without disarmament. "The League of Nations has been going on for ten years", he said. "There have been meetings and eloquent speeches delivered in favour of peace, disarmament and arbitration, but the League of Nations is in danger of failure from being run by flapdoodlers."

Students riot by throwing stink bombs in the University of Dublin when government officers arrive to sign up volunteers for a newly created Irish Free State reserve force, which Irish Republicans oppose.

The German government issues a warning against the anti-Young Plan referendum campaign, calling it a "monstrous attempt to incite the German people against the government and to annihilate the ten-year goodwill policy of the republic with Germany's former enemies". Sounds rough. In Berlin two are killed on October 20th after the Stahlhelm clash with police on the referendum issue, attempting both a push against the presidential mansion and the storming of a Jewish synagogue, all repelled by the police. Later, NSDAP leader Adolf Hitler and Alfred Hugenberg appeared together at the Zirkus Krone in Munich during a rally supporting the referendum.

The threshold making the anti-Young Plan referendum binding is reached, with 10% of the country's eligible voters subscribing their support to it. A turnout of 50% remains required for it to pass. Celebrations by Stalheim for this sees two killed after street fighting erupts between the far-right and communists in Berlin. Amid this, Interior Minister Carl Severing announces December 22 as the date of the anti-Young Plan referendum.

The last British troops occupying the Rhineland were evacuated from Wiesbaden.

Germany and Poland signed an agreement settling frontier questions of an economic nature. Surely it will last.

The government of France is defeated on a confidence vote over its Rhineland evacuation policy. Prime Minister Aristide Briand and his entire cabinet resigned as a result. Édouard Daladier accepts French President Gaston Doumergue's offer to form the next government. Only days later he gives up, leaving Étienne Clémentel to try and do it instead. But no. André Tardieu becomes the third person within a week to try to form the next government on November 1st and is successfully sworn in the next day. Aristide Briand becomes the new Foreign Minister.

17 were killed and 60 injured in a train accident near Namur, Belgium.

After the news break that Princess Marie José of Belgium has been engaged to Crown Prince Umberto of Italy, riots erupt in Brussels due to the vast unpopularity of the Mussolini regime. 100 protesters riot and throw stones at the Italian embassy, before being dispersed by police who fire warning shots over their heads. On October 23rd Crown Prince Umberto, visiting the country lays a wreath at the Monument to the Unknown Soldier --- a shot is fired at him. The would-be assassin is speedily arrested and spirited away before he's roughed up by the crowd.

Commemorating the 7th anniversary of the March on Rome, Benito Mussolini addresses 60,000 assembled Blackshirts in Rome. "Italy today is what I wanted it to be – an army of citizens and soldiers ready for works of peace, laborious, silent and disciplined", Mussolini declares. "And if tomorrow someone wished to disturb the peaceful rhythm of the development of our people if someone wanted to break this superb unity of spirit, would you answer my call, Blackshirts?" The legions roar in the affirmative.

The Italian Fascist government seizes two large estates in the provinces of Arezzo and Taranto because their owners had failed to cultivate the land. "Property is not an end in itself. Those who own it have special duties with regard to the collectivity of the people, represented by the state", read the government decree. Bizarrely, the land is redistributed via a lottery.

The Greek parliament elects Alexandros Zaimis as the new President of Greece.

The cabinet council of Portugal pardons 86 officers who had been exiled to the Azores for plotting against the government in 1927.

In the first attempted homicide ever recorded in Vatican City, a Swedish woman in St. Peter's Basilica tried to shoot an archbishop that had disappointed her after she had approached him requesting employment. She was believed to have a mental disorder.

The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes renames itself the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Meanwhile, after the Italian authorities execute a Serbian student by firing squad on charges of murdering a Fascist on election day in Pazin, anti-Italian demonstrations are held across newborn Yugoslavia.

The trial of 26 women in the Angel Makers of Nagyrév case opened in Szolnok, Hungary. The defendants were tried in batches with the final trial ending in the summer of 1930. Ultimately, eight were sentenced to death.

Parliamentary elections are held in Czechoslovakia, resulting in a victory for the Republican Party of Agricultural and Smallholder Peoples, which wins 46 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 24 seats in the Senate. Voter turnout is 90.2% for the Chamber and 78.8% for the Senate. Clearly, these elections (held moments before the stock crash in America) makes clear that Czechoslovakia is the healthiest democracy in the world, truly. The rightward shift of the 1925 election is reversed, seeing gains for the moderate centre-left and losses for the Communist Party.

Soviet authorities in Krasnodar, on the Kuban River, executes 21 men for anti-government activities.

The Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union passed a measure saying that any Soviet citizens working or living abroad who refused an order to return to the country would be considered guilty of treason and would be shot when finally taken into custody.

The Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic is established.

The occasion of Joseph Stalin's fiftieth birthday marked a major development of the state-orchestrated cult of personality around him. An enormous press campaign showered hyperbolic acclaim on the "glorious leader", and that day's issue of Pravda was exclusively devoted to him.

MIDDLE EAST

The Turkish battlecruiser Yavuz is refitted after extensive maintenance. To maintain naval parity in the Black Sea, the Soviet Union transfers the battleship Parizhskaya Kommuna and the light cruiser Profintern from the Baltic.

As an agricultural producer, Turkey is hit very hard by the sudden economic crisis, with the Kemalist government quickly responding with strict state intervention in the economy, adopting a five-year plan inspired by the USSR. So far, conditions are still rapidly declining.

Women receive the right to vote in Turkey for the first time.

The Turkish and Soviet governments signed a new treaty of alliance.

Sir Francis Humphrys, the mastermind of the "Kabul Airlift" earlier this year, commended alongside his wife by the Foreign Secretary and soon knighted, is appointed to be the High Commissioner for the Kingdom of Iraq. Preparations for gradual independence are being made.

Naji al-Suwaydi becomes the Prime Minister of Iraq.

Parliamentary elections are held in Egypt. The Wafd Party wins a majority of seats.

ASIA AND OCEANIA

Bloody clashes continue on the Sino-Soviet border. The Soviets force their naval fleets up to the Amur and Songhua rivers, capturing the Lahasusu. A Chinese retreat to Fujin sees Chinese troops killing civilians and raiding storages, whereas the Soviet soldiers officially state they will leave the civilians untouched, even encouraging local Chinese to fight alongside them. By November the Soviets, throwing ten divisions at the enemy, launch a two-pronged offensive --- one that proves all too efficient, as they upon arrival in Manzhouli, quickly captured, find the Chinese troops looting houses and stealing civilian clothes in an attempt to escape. After much debate the Republic of China finally submits, signing the Khabarovsk Protocol (enforcing the 1924 status quo ante) in December. The swift Soviet victory greatly surprises and impresses many Westerners. Many hail an efficient Soviet usage of communist propaganda and misdirection tactics via radio and leaflets.

The Communist Party of China holds its 9th Congress at Gutian, the first after the failures of the Nanchang Uprising. The commander Mao Zedong, voted out of the party six months earlier but moving from his success at the little-known Jiaoyang Congress, addresses the Zhu-Mao 4th Army as its Comintern-appointed political commissar, chairing the Congress.

Famine, ongoing since 1928, remains widespread across northwestern and northern China, especially in Henan, Shaanxi and Gansu. Aside from the communist insurgency and Soviet border clashes, Muslim revolt and unrest, as well as the aftermath of the Q3 1929 warlord and peasant insurrections, the chaos remains clear. Not to mention that in mid-October, several battalions mutiny at Wuhu. In truth, the KMT government holds direct control over only parts of eastern and central China.

After a long, harrowing period of war, Mohammed Nadir Khan finally leads his Afghan forces to victory. On the 13th of October Nadir Khan captures Kabul, sacking the city. The self-proclaimed King Habibullāh Kalakāni, who reigned for nine months after rallying Tajik rebels, briefly flees the capital but is captured days later along with his chief officers. Due to tribal demands, the pretender is executed. Nadir Khan becomes Nadir Shah and sets about stabilising his reign. He relays a message to the leaders of Europe seeking recognition, stating he hopes to lead Afghanistan along the path of progress towards civilisation and independence. He craves especially the friendship of France, and also establishes a new army ministry, enrols his ragtag forces into a National Army, reopens the schools, and tries to rebuild damaged infrastructure. Things remain chaotic, with widespread banditry and tribal unrest, especially among the Shinwaris and the Tajiks, and with Uzbek rebel forces using Afghan sanctuaries to harass Soviet border posts. The USSR is the first country to recognise his rule.

India is surging with nationalism. An early sign comes before the Black Thursday when Mahatma Gandhi is met by a crowd of 75,000 people upon arrival in Azamgarh. Days before New Year's Eve, the All India Congress in Lahore demands full Indian independence. The radical nationalist wing, led by Jawaharlal Nehru, pushes the National Congress to adopt a resolution calling for independence within a year. As 1930 approaches, a climax is reached: At midnight on New Year's Eve, Nehru hoists the tricolour flag of India upon the banks of the Ravi in Lahore. January 26th is declared Independence Day, and plans for mass civil disobedience are made.

What have the British ever done for us? The largest electrified railway in the British Empire is opened in India, running 116 miles between Bombay and Pune.

Federal elections in Australia see the Labor Party of James Scullin defeat the Nationalist-Country coalition government, hailing a new era. Unfortunately for Scullin the Wall Street Crash happens two days after he is sworn in, and by the end of 1929 Australian unemployment has skyrocketed to just over 13%, with all sides of Australian exports - dominantly wool and wheat - ending the year with a fall by almost a third. Also, a Nationalist majority in the Senate remains due to a lack of elections there, and the Labor economic programme will undoubtedly be harshly fought.
GAME STATSShow
GAME STATS

Republic of the United States of Brazil (Republica dos Estados Unidos do Brasil)
Image
Motto: Order and Progress (Ordem e Progresso)
Map: http://www.mapas-historicos.com/atlas-1 ... antigo.jpg
Date: Q1, 1930
Population: 35,582,954
Size: 8,515,767 sq km

Foreign Relations:

United States of America - Good relations (67/100). Old allies, frequent trade partners.
United Kingdom - Moderate Relations (52/100). Frequent trade partners, minor border disputes with Guyana.
French Republic - Very Good relations (77/100). Old friendship, frequent trade partners, constant military cooperation.
Argentina - Poor Relations (50/100). Old Arms Race, Border Disputes, Traditional Rivals, ABC Pact.
Chile - Good Relations (65/100). Frequent trade partners, shared rivalry with Argentina, ABC Pact.
Uruguay - Moderate Relations (56/100). Border Tensions, local trade Partners.

Government:

System: Presidential Republic (Officialy); Oligarch Republic (de facto)
Current Popularity: 44%

Constitution of 1891 - http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/Co ... icao91.htm

President: Washington Luís
Vice-President: Fernando de Melo Viana

Minister of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce: Geminiano Lira Castro
Minister of Finance: Francisco Chaves de Oliveira Botelho
Minister of War: Nestor Sezefredo dos Passos
Minister of Justice and Internal Affairs: Augusto Viana do Castelo
Minister of the Navy: Arnaldo de Siqueira Pinto da Luz
Minister of Foreign Affairs: Otávio Mangabeira
Minister of Transportation and Public Works: Vítor Konder

Political Parties:

Federal Union Party (Partido da União Federal) (PUF) (Flamelord)
Party Ideology: Agrarianism, Conservatism, Center-Right
Party Leader: Washington Luis
Brief Description: Made of the conservative elements of the old Republican Party of Brazil under the leadership of President Luis. Most traditionalist party, defending the rights and privileges of the landowners and the top 1% of Brazilian society. Opposed to liberal and left-wing reforms. The party of the status quo.

Liberal Democratic Party (Partido Liberal Democrata) (PLD) (RedJohn)
Party Ideology: Liberalism, Progressive Democratic, Center
Party Leader: Julio Prestes
Brief Description: Social and economic liberal progressives under the leadership of the Governor of São Paulo Júlio Prestes. Formed after the failure of the Ouro Preto Conference. Greatly popular with the urban middle class and the business community of Brazil.

National Liberal Alliance (Aliança Nacional Liberal) (ANL) (Westar)
Party Ideology: Liberalism, Populism, Center
Party Leader: Getulio Vargas
Brief Description: Liberal Populists under the leadership of the Governor of Rio Grande do Sul Getúlio Vargas. Extremely in favour of social reforms related to labour, pensions, welfare and female voting rights. Very popular with the lower class of Brazil, especially in the North-East regions.

Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democrata) (PSD) (Acecipher)
Party Ideology: Social-Democracy, Liberalism, Center
Party Leader: Fernando de Sousa Costa
Brief Description: Social Democratic Party recently formed in 1925. Heavily inspired by German/Weimar Social Democratic policies, especially in relation to welfare. Popular with the educated urban middle class.

Democratic Party (Partido Democrata) (PD)
Party Ideology: Liberalism, Center-Right
Party Leader: José Adriano Marrey Júnior
Brief Description: Founded in 1925 from Republican Party dissidents. Despite being liberals, they mostly defend the interests of traditional families related to the agricultural market in Brazil.

Liberator Party (Partido Libertador) (PL) (LordMoose)
Party Ideology: Conservatism, Parliamentarism, Center-Right
Party Leader: Joaquim Francisco de Assis Brasil
Brief Description: Traditionalist and Conservative party from the South of Brazil, strong defenders of state authority and parliamentarism.

Communist Party of Brazil (Partido Comunista do Brasil) (PCB) (Smyg)
Party Ideology: Communism, Marxism-Leninism, Far Left
Party Leader: Astrojildo Pereira
Brief Description: Formed in 1921 after the split with the anarcho-syndicalists. Developed strong ties to the Soviet Union and the Comintern. Took extensive part in the civil during the 1920's, coordinating much of the action against the Federal government. Recently legalized again after the truce with the government. Popular with the urban, lower class proletariat.

Socialist Revolutionary Party (Partido Socialista Revolucionario) (PSR)
Party Ideology: Socialism, Left
Party Leader: João Mangabeira
Brief Description: Formed after the 1921 split by the moderate Socialist faction of the party. Grew to become the favoured party of the left wing/socialist urban intelligentsia. Took part in the civil war against the federal government. Recently legalized after the truce with the government.

Brazilian Workers Confederation (Confederação Brasileira dos Trabalhadores) (CBT) (Marankara)
Party Ideology: Anarcho-Communism, Syndicalism, Far Left
Party Leader: Edgard Leuenroth
Brief Description: The remains of the Libertarian Socialist Party. Hold great control over the industrial cooperatives and trade unions in the larger urban centers. Resumed normal activities following the truce with the Federal Government.

Proletarian Unification Party (Partido da Unificação Proletaria) (PUP) (MarsterOfOblivion)
Party Ideology: Trotskyism, Far Left
Party Leader: Mário Pedrosa
Brief Description: Formed by Trotskyist members of the Communist Party after their expulsion in 1926. Had some participation in the civil war. Legalized following the truce with the government.

Workers and Peasants Block (Bloco Operário e Camponês) (BLOC) (Snacks)
Party Ideology: Anarcho-Communism, Far Left
Party Leader: João da Costa Pimenta
Brief Description: Anarcho-Communist group that focuses in the Brazilian peasantry, being one of the few left-wing parties in Brazil that was able to find some representation with the uneducated peasantry. Fought alongside the other left-wing group in the civil war. Recently legalized again by the truce.

Brazilian Integralist Action (Ação Integralista Brasileira) (AIB) (Flaming Bolshevik)
Party Ideology: Integralism, Fascism, Far Right
Party Leader: Plínio Salgado
Brief Description: Far right group inspired by Italian Fascism and German National Socialism. Rapidly growing in the anti-left communities of Brazil. Fought alongside Federal troops against the Lieutenants and the Leftists in the Civil War.

Movement for Popular Action (Movimento da Ação Popular) (MAP) (Serenissima)
Party Ideology: Reformism, Tenentism, Center
Party Leaders: Luis Carlos Prestes, Eduardo Gomes
Brief Description: Movement composed of the leadership of the Lieutenants formed following the end of the Civil War. Still hold a great amount of influence over the army regiemnts across Brazil. Speculation regarding if they will become a political party in the future is large.

Brazilian Patrianovist Imperial Action (Ação Imperial Patrianovista Brasileira) (AIPB) (DutchGuy)
Party Ideology: Monarchism, Conservatism, Right
Party Leaders: Pedro Henrique de Orléans e Bragança, Arlindo Veiga dos Santos
Brief Description: Recently formed pro-monarchist movement, wishing to restore the Brazilian Empire originally deposed in the 1889 coup. Still very small, but slowly growing.

States and Territories:

Federal Districts: 1
States: 20
Territories: 1
SpoilerShow
Federal District

Senators: 3
Deputies: 15

Overview: Also known as the 'Guanabara District', special administrative district managed by the National Congress. Location of Rio de Janeiro, one of the largest and wealthiest cities in Brazil, also the capital of the Republic and home of the government. Very industrialized.


Rio de Janeiro

Senators: 3
Deputies: 31

Overview: A developed and rich state, finds itself surrounding the capital. Large industrial centers and developed farmlands are found all over the state.


São Paulo

Senators: 3
Deputies: 55

Overview: The industrial and agricultural heartland of the Republic. Extremely rich and developed cities with large industrial districts. Extremely fertile countryside that produces all the sorts of agricultural products, most especially Brazil's biggest export: coffee. Large immigrant population, mostly Italians and Japanese.


Minas Gerais

Senators: 3
Deputies: 57

Overview: One of the richest and most agriculturally developed states in the Union. Produces immense amounts of iron, gold, coffee and milk. Rapidly developing its industry and expanding its urban centers.


Bahia

Senators: 3
Deputies: 34

Overview: The richest state in the North-Eastern region, most famous for it extensive agricultural output, mostly focused in the plenty of cotton, soy and sugar cane. Slowly developing industry in the larger urban areas. Interior areas remain impoverished, due to government neglect and constant droughts.


Rio Grande do Sul

Senators: 3
Deputies: 28

Overview: Extremely developed state, with a healthy mix of agriculture and industry. Highlight goes to cattle farming, which is by far the most prosperous economic activity in the region. Soy and rice also extensively produced. Large population of German immigrants.


Pernambuco

Senators: 3
Deputies: 28

Overview: Most industrialized state in the north east accompained by a developed agricultural sector. Has suffered economical backlash over the decline of the sugar cane market, but has maintained its economy. Interior is extremely impoverished and underdeveloped, constantly hit by droughts.


Ceará

Senators: 3
Deputies: 17

Overview: Once one of the most prosperous states, Ceará has been wrecked by several droughts that have damaged the agricultural system of the state. The countryside has fallen to bandits, while the landowners atttempt to keep control. The only somewhat prosperous area is the capital city of Fortaleza.


Paraiba

Senators: 3
Deputies: 11

Overview: A moderately wealthy state in the northeast, has lost a lot money with the decline of the sugar cane trade. State also exports a decent amount of minerals. Countryside is generally impoverished and filled with bandits.


Pará

Senators: 3
Deputies: 9

Overview: Mostly covered by the Amazon Rainforest, state mostly relies in the large-scale export of minerals such as copper, iron and aluminium. Most of the state is underdeveloped and unpopulated.


Alagoas

Senators: 3
Deputies: 9

Overview: One of the smallest states in the Union, also one of the poorest. Largely unindustrialized, mostly relies in the declining export of sugar cane and other smaller agricultural products for income.


Paraná

Senators: 3
Deputies: 9

Overview: A rapidly growing state, exporting large amounts of coffee, corn, soy and sugar cane. Population has been increasing steadily since the declaration of the Republic.


Mato Grosso

Senators: 3
Deputies: 8

Overview: A very sparsely populated state, with most of its territory being unocupied. Almost entirely agrarian. Mostly relies on its production of soy and corn.


Santa Catarina

Senators: 3
Deputies: 8

Overview: A small state with a rapidly developing economy. Most of the economy relies in the cattle, soy and tobacco business. Small amounts of industry, especially the textile industry, are found in the state's capital of Florianopolis.


Piaui

Senators: 3
Deputies: 7

Overview: One of the poorest states in the Union. Most towns are underdeveloped and impoverished, lacking industry. Mostly rellies in the production of soy and sugar cane for its income.


Rio Grande do Norte

Senators: 3
Deputies: 6

Overview: One of the poorer states of Brazil, mostly relies in the export of fruits, nuts and ocean-based products. Constantly harassed by droughts, which leaves most of the interior impoverished and underdeveloped.


Espirito Santo

Senators: 3
Deputies: 6

Overview: A small state made rich for its production of coffee and its extraction of iron. Despite having a small population, its economy has been steadily growing since the 1890's.


Goiás

Senators: 3
Deputies: 6

Overview: A largely underdeveloped state of the Union, mostly composed of large farmsteads and a few average-sized towns. Relies mostly in the export of meat and other alimentary items. Small amounts of copper also exported.


Maranhão

Senators: 3
Deputies: 6

Overview: A mildly developed state of the Union. Despite most of its population living in poverty, the state is rich in iron, aluminium and gold, as well as producing large amounts of soy and a decent amount of cotton.


Sergipe

Senators: 3
Deputies: 5

Overview: Besides being one of the smallest states for territory, it is a poor and relatively underdeveloped region of the Union. Mostly relies in the export of fruits and sugar cane.


Amazonas

Senators: 3
Deputies: 4

Overview: Covered by the Amazon Rainforest, the state remains a mildly prosperous one. Despite losing the revenues of the rubber trade, the state mostly prospers from exporting wood and minerals. Most of the state is underdeveloped however, being covered by rainforest.


Acre Territory

Senators: 0
Deputies: 0

Overview: A territory of the Union and one of the poorest places in Brazil. Wrestled away from Bolivia some 30 years ago following a local revolution. Since its a territory, it lacks any form of representation in the Legislature.

Legislature:

Federal Senate: 63 Seats

PUF: 21
PLD: 17
ANL: 16
PD: 4
PSD: 3
PL: 2

Chamber of Deputies: 350 Seats

PUF: 93
PLD: 91
ANL: 70
PD: 42
PSD: 27
PL: 15
PCB: 4
PSR: 3
AIB: 3
BLOC: 2

Next Election (Both Executive and Legislative): Q1, 1930

Economy:

Finance: The Bank of Brazil issues the Real, used in currency both as paper notes and in gold coins. Cooperative Workers Banks set up by the Communist Party.
Agriculture: The biggest source of income and pride for Brazil. Most of the interior of the states are extensively developed for agricultural use. Largest agricultural products of Brazil are coffee, soy, cotton, sugarcane and meat. Most of the cultivated land is controlled by rich landowners. Small amount controlled by the government. Suffering great damage to its exportation sector due to the Financial crash.
Industry: Found in concentrated areas around Brazil, but rapidly growing. Most of the industry is concentrated along and in the proximities of the Atlantic coastline in cities like Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Campinas, Santos, Florianópolis and Porto Alegre. Growing presence of Unions on the larger industrial centers. Production starting to struggle due to the financial crash.
Services: Healthcare, education, mail services etc. are all provided by the government, even if not of the best quality and often concentrated in the large urban areas, neglecting the countryside.

Government Budget:

Treasury: 42
Surplus: -11

Revenue: +401


Federal Product Taxes: +50
Income Tax: +60
Corporation Tax: +40
Trade Tariffs: +57

Public Corporations:

National Radio System: +15
National Telegraphic/Telephonic Service: +30
Federal Railways: +35
Municipal Transportation: +20
Postal Service: +20
State Media: +10
National Bank Revenues: +20
State Industry: +20
State Agriculture: +24

Expenditure: -412

Army: -50
Navy: -30
Air Force: -10
Road/Railroad Maintenance: -40
Police Departments: -40
Courts and Law System: -10
Prisons: -10
Government Administration: -20
Pensions: -12
Public Education: -30
Public Health: -30
State Industry: -30
State Agriculture: -20
Energy: -40
Sewage and Water: -20
Corruption: -20

Debt: 80 credits (30 owed to USA, 20 owed to UK, 20 owed to France, 10 owed to Domestic sources)
Interest rate: 20% (Adds 2 credits of debt per annum)
Interest Payments: 0 credits per annum
Total change in debt: +2 credits per annum
Payment Reserve: 6 Credits

Private Sector:

Agriculture: 14
Light Manufacturing: 10
Heavy Manufacturing: 6
Services: 3
Tourism: 1
Luxuries: 2

Life:

Media: Newspapers and pamphlets run across the larger urban centers. Freedom of the Press is enacted, Communist and Anarchist papers are starting to grow. Most political parties have their own newspaper.
Transportation: Railway lines, both private and public, run through most of the countryside. Country lacks major highways, with most interior roads being either small paved ones or dirt roads. Tram services in all major cities. Rivers used extensively for travel in small boats.
Electricity: Most power produced by either hydroelectric dams or imported coal. Larger cities, towns and even smaller villages are supplied with electricity. Countryside remains mostly in the dark.
Education: Most of the population is illiterate. The majority of literates are found in the middle and high classes of larger towns and cities. Universities are found in the major urban centers. Outside of the major cities, public education is barely provided.
Labour: 5-day work week, right to organize, bargain collectively or strike, child labour prohibited, some social benefits. Multitude of new ILO regulations passed and enacted.
Health: Large and modern hospitals found in the larger urban centers. Smaller cities are served by underfunded and antiquated clinics. Many small towns lack any form of public health center.
Water and Sewage: Cities are provided with clean water and efficient sewage systems. Smaller towns have some sort of water distribution, but usually lack sewage systems.
Food: Food and crops are plentiful in most of the country. Cities are supplied with food daily and most farmers are self sufficient. The northeast is occasionally hit by droughts, which cause large scale famines.
Housing: Cities are a mixture of Colonial, Imperial and new Art Deco architecture. More developed cities in the interior are usually built with colonial architecture. Farms are built in similar styles, but with large distinctions between wealthy and poor farmers. Greater effort being taken to house the poor of the North, most especially in Manaus.
Crime: Most crime is petty crimes in city centers, usually robberies and theft. Homicide rates are somewhat high, especially in the countryside. Government corruption is quite large and mostly unchecked. Recent destruction of Jewish Crime syndicate has improved somewhat the situation.
Religion: Most of the population follow Roman Catholicism, with large pockets of Protestantism and Presbyterianism in the Southern states. Small Jewish communities in the larger urban centers. African-based religions practiced extensively by the Afro-Brazilian population.
Ethnic: Most of the population is composed of 'Pardos', a mixture between Caucasians, Afro-Brazilians and Indigenous groups. Afro-Brazilians and Caucasians follow after. Large amount of German, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish communities. Growing communities of Japanese and Arab immigrants in the country.

Authority:

Department of Political and Social Order (lbj181)
Director: João Neves da Fontoura
Operatives: 1,500
Vehicles: 30 cars, 10 trucks
Description: Brazil's political police, responsible for carrying out the Government's dirty and secretive work. Often watch over political movements and trade unions.
Supplies: Ammunition is high, well armed with army-grade weapons and equipment. Heavily funded.

Federal Department of Public Security
Director: Francisco Campos
Police Officers: 1,000
Vehicles: 250 cars, 30 trucks
Description: Brazil's Federal Police force, directly under the control of the executive. Mostly focus in detective and bureaucratic work, though often get involved in normal police action. Also responsible for passport control.
Supplies: Ammunition is moderate, most officers armed only with revolvers and other small arms.

Military Police of Brazil
Head Inspector: Setembrino de Carvalho
Officers: 54,740
Vehicles: 400 cars, 100 trucks, 30 Armoured Vehicles
Description: Despite the 'Military' Tag, this force ends up acting as Brazil's main police force, doing the normal duties of patrolling and keeping the order. It holds both strong ties to the Army and to the Government.
Supplies: Ammunition is plentiful in the richer states, the poorer the states, the less ammunition and supplies. Armed mostly with pistols and army rifles such as Mausers and Lebels. Occasionally Maxim machine guns.

Armed Forces of Brazil

Army of Brazil (Zar)
Commander-in-Chief: Eurico Gaspar Dutra
Soldiers: 120,000
Cavalry: 20,000
Artillery: 320 Guns, a mixture of Howitzers and French WW1-era artillery.
Description: A powerful institution in Brazil, the creators of the Republic. Despite being neglected for years, the attention towards the army re-appeared, when it was split apart by the Civil War. Despite officially loyal to the Government, the Lieutenants hold great influence over the army. Soldiers' councils have formed, most swearing fealty to the Lieutenants, but some to the Communists and Syndicalists. Growth of Trotskyist activity among the ranks.
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are moderately high, due to recent French assistance. Army mostly equipped with French and German equipment, such as Levels, Mausers, Lugers etc. Machine guns like Maxim guns also used.
Specific Armies (Also Included in the numbers above)Show
1st Army of Brazil
Location: Rio de Janeiro, Federal District
General: Mascarenhas de Morais (SANAND)
Soldiers: 30,000
Cavalry: 4,000
Artillery: 50 guns
Description and Supplies: Same as above

2nd Army of Brazil
Location: São Paulo, State of São Paulo
General: Augusto Tasso Fragoso (Tellos)
Soldiers: 25,000
Cavalry: 3,500
Artillery: 40 guns
Description and Supplies: Same as above

Navy of Brazil
First Admiral: Isaías de Noronha
Armada: 2 Dreadnoughts, 2 Cruisers, 14 Destroyers, 8 Gunboats, 4 Submarines
Marines: 2000
Description: The original rebellious branch of the Armed Forces, having engaged in several rebellions and mutinies since the rise of the Republic. Despite its previous track record, the Navy remained mostly loyal to the Federal Government during the Civil War as the Lieutenants failed to gain influence over its officers. There is a growing influence of Communist and Socialist ideals within the Navy however, which are already starting to cause some trouble.
Supplies: Most of the fleet is old and obsolete, with many ships in dire need of repair and modernization of its assets. Many land constructions belonging to the navy, such as shipyards and bases, have fallen to disrepair and disuse. Greater effort being taken by the government to repair the bad conditions. Supplies of ammunition and oil are found to be in decent amounts.

Air Force of Brazil
Air Marshal: Armando Figueira de Almeida
Planes: 50 Bi-Planes, 15 Bombers, 30 Reconnaissance Bi-Planes
Description: The youngest branch of the Armed Forces, only being created in 1927, the aerial assets of Brazil were previously divided between the Army and the Navy, only now being turned into an official, separate branch. The newly created Air Force took extensive part in the Civil War, remaining the most loyal part of the Armed Forces. The Air Force is still in its infancy, and much must be done to modernize it.
Supplies: While the planes themselves are newly made, their models and types are old and very outdated. Supplies like ammunition and oil are found in good amounts.

Militias, Paramilitary Groups, Private Companies and Others

Public Force of Rio Grande do Sul (Westar)
Commander: Filinto Müller
Loyal to: Vargas and the ANL
Location: São Borja, Rio Grande do Sul
Troops: 2,000 soldiers
Vehicles: 30 cars, 20 trucks
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are high. Armed with army-grade weapons.

Public Force of São Paulo (Red John)
Commander: Euclides Figueiredo
Loyal to: Julio Prestes and the State of São Paulo
Location: Across the State of São Paulo
Troops: 3,000 soldiers
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are high. Armed with army-grade American weapons.

Palmarista Red Guard (Smyg)
Commander: Gregório Lourenço Bezerra
Loyal to: Communist Party of Brazil
Location: Spread across the states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
Troops: 4,000 soldiers
Vehicles: 10 cars, 25 trucks
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are low due to the recent civil war. Weapons vary, some are military grade, others are ordinary civilian weapons.

Integralist Force of Brazil (Flaming Bolshevik)
Commander: Miguel Reale
Loyal to: Integralist Movement
Location: Rio de Janeiro, Federal District
Troops: 600 soldiers
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are low. Armed with pistols and civilian weaponry.

National Brigade (Serenissima)
Commander: Juarez Tavora
Loyal to: The Lieutenants
Location: Spread across Brazil
Troops: 7,000 soldiers
Vehicles: 20 cars, 30 trucks, 5 armoured vehicles
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are high. Armed with military equipment. New stocks of Czech equipment, Argentine horses and canned food.

Armed Workers Federation (Marankara)
Commander: None, controlled by a Committee of the CBT
Loyal to: The CBT
Location: Focused in the large industrial centres of the South-East
Troops: 2,400 soldiers
Vehicles: 10 cars, 30 trucks
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are moderate. Armed with ordinary civilian weaponry.

Popular Defense Black Guards (Snacks)
Commander: Minervino de Oliveira
Loyal to: The BLOC
Location: Focused in the Northeast
Troops: 400 soldiers
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are moderate. Armed with ordinary civilian weaponry.

Lavras Diamantinas Patriotic Battalion
Commander: Horácio de Matos (Coin)
Location: Chapada Region, State of Bahia
Troops: 3,000 soldiers
Vehicles: 5 cars, 10 trucks
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are high. Armed with military grade equipment.

People's Freedom Army of Paraguay
Commander: Rafael Franco (Robert Schumann)
Location: Nioaque, State of Mato Grosso
Troops: 1,254 soldiers
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are improved. Armed with Paraguayan military equipment.

Lampião's Band
Leader: Virgulino Ferreira da Silva "Lampião" (Gesar)
Location: Unknown, last seen across Bahia.
Troops: 115 soldiers
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are moderate. Armed with civilian weapons and equipment stolen from dead soldiers/policemen.

Farquhar Unlimited
CEO: Percival Farquhar (CarpeVerpa)
Possessions: Several railway lines, extensive logging operations and iron ore mining operations. Also owns several hotels in the major cities.
Guards: 4,500
Vehicles: 40 cars, 100 trucks
Supplies: Ammunition and supplies are high. Guards armed and equipped with American military equipment
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